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Orofacial Myofunctional Disorders

Abreu, R. R., Rocha, R. L., Lamounier, J. A., & Guerra, Â. F. M. (2008). Etiology, clinical manifestations and concurrent findings in mouth-breathing children. Jornal de Pediatria84(6), 529-535.

American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. (2014). Guideline on management of the developing dentition and occlusion in pediatric dentistry. Clinical Practice Guidelines, 37(6), 253-265. Retrieved from

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2004). Preferred practice patterns for the profession of speech-language pathology [Preferred Practice Patterns]. Available from

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2016a). Code of ethics [Ethics]. Available from

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2016b). Scope of practice in speech-language pathology [Scope of Practice]. Available from

Bueno, D. D. A., Grechi, T. H., Trawitzki, L. V., Anselmo-Lima, W. T., Felício, C. M., & Valera, F. C. (2015). Muscular and functional changes following adenotonsillectomy in children. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 79(4), 537-540.

Buryk, M., Bloom, D., & Shope, T. (2011). Efficacy of neonatal release of ankyloglossia: a randomized trial. Pediatrics, 128(2), 280-288. 

Chinnadurai, S., Francis, D., Epstein, R., Morad, A., Kohanim, S., & McPheeters, M. (2015). Treatment of ankyloglossia for reasons other than breastfeeding: A systematic review. Pediatrics. 135(6), e1467-e1474.

Farsi, N.M., Salama, F.S. (1997). Sucking Habits in Saudi children: Prevalence, Contributing Factors, and Effects on the Primary Dentition. Pediatric Dentistry, 19(1), 28-33.

Ferreira, C. L. P., Da Silva, M. A. M. R., & de Felicio, C. M. (2009). Orofacial myofunctional disorder in subjects with temporomandibular disorder. CRANIO: The Journal of Craniomandibular Practice, 27(4), 268-274.

Fletcher, S. G., Casteel, R. L., & Bradley, D. P. (1961). Tongue-thrust swallow, speech articulation, and age. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 26(3), 201-208.

Gross, A. M., Kellum, G. D., Hale, S. T., Messer, S. C., Benson, B. A., Sisakun, S. L., & Bishop, F. W. (1990). Myofunctional and dentofacial relationships in second grade children. The Angle Orthodontist, 60(4), 247-253.

Hale, S. T., Kellum, G. D., & Bishop, F. W. (1988). Prevalence of oral muscle and speech differences in orthodontic patients.The International Journal of Orofacial Myology, 14(2), 6-10.

Hale, S. T., Kellum, G. D., Nason, V. M., & Johnson, M. A. (1988). Analysis of Orofacial Myofunctional Factors in Kindergarten Subjects. The International Journal of Orofacial Myology, 14(3), 12-15.

Hale, S. T., Kellum, G. D., Richardson, J. F., Messer, S. C., Gross, A. M., & Sisakun, S. (1992). Oral motor control, posturing, and myofunctional variables in 8-year-olds. Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research, 35(6), 1203-1208.

Hanson, M. L., & Cohen, M. S. (1973). Effects of form and function on swallowing and the developing dentition. American Journal of Orthodontics, 64(1), 63-82.

Hanson, M., & Mason, R. (2003). Orofacial Myology: International Perspectives. Charles C. Thomas, Publisher, Springfield, IL.

Harari, D., Redlich, M., Miri, S., Hamud, T., & Gross, M. (2010). The effect of mouth breathing versus nasal breathing on dentofacial and craniofacial development in orthodontic patients. The Laryngoscope, 120(10), 2089-2093.

Hitos, S. F., Arakaki, R., Sole, D., & Weckx, L. M. (2013). Oral breathing and speech disorders in children. Jornal de Pediatria, 89(4), 361-365.

Martinelli,R.L.d.C., Marchesan, I.  & Berretin-Felix,G. (2018). Posterior lingual frenulum in infants: occurrence and maneuver for visual inspection. Revista CEFAC, 20(4):478-483.

Mason, R. M., & Franklin, H. (2009). Position statement of the International Association of Orofacial Myology regarding: Appliance use for oral habit patterns. The International Journal of Orofacial Myology: Official Publication of the International Association of Orofacial Myology, 35, 74-76. Retrieved from

Mason, R., & Proffit, W. (1984) The tongue thrust controversy: Background and recommendations. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 39, 115-132.

Mason, R., (1988) Orthodontic perspectives on orofacial myofunctional therapy. International Journal of Orofacial Myology. 14, 49-55.

Mason, R. (2011). Myths that persist about orofacial myology. International Journal of Orofacial Myology, 37, 27-38.

Mason, R. (n.d.A). For Dentists and Physicians. Retrieved from

Mason, R. (n.d.B). Lip Incompetence. Retrieved from

Maspero, C., Prevedello, C., Giannini, L., Galbiati, G., & Farronato, G. (2014). Atypical swallowing: A review. Minerva Stomatol, 63(6), 217-227.

Meaux, A., Savage, M., & Gonsoulin, C. (2016). Tongue ties and speech sound disorders: what are we overlooking? Presented poster at the Annual ASHA Convention, Philadelphia, PA

Merkel-Walsh, R. & Overland, L.L. (2017) Functional assessment of feeding challenges in children with ankyloglossia. Poster presentation at the American Speech Language and Hearing Association, Los Angeles, CA

Messner, A.H., & Lalakea, M.L. (2002). The effect of ankyloglossia on speech in children. Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surg, 127(6), 539-545.

Meyer, P. G. (2000). Tongue lip and jaw differentiation and its relationship to orofacial myofunctional treatment. International Journal of Orofacial Myology, 26, 44-52.

Moore, N. (2008). Suffer the Little Children: Fixed intraoral habit appliances for treating childhood thumbsucking habits: A critical review of the literature. International Journal of Orofacial Myology, 34, 46-78.

Ovsenik, M. (2009). Incorrect Orofacial Functions until 5 Years of Age and their Association with Posterior Crossbite. American Journal of Dentofacial Orthopedics, Sep;136(3): 375-381.

Paskay, L. C. (2006). Instrumentation and measurement procedures in orofacial myology. International Journal of Orofacial Myology, 32, 37-57.

Poyak, J. (2006). Effects of pacifiers on early oral development. International Journal of Orthodontics, 17(4), 13-16.

Proffit, W. (2000) Contemporary Orthodontics, 3rd edition, Mosby, St. Louis.

Queiroz Marcheson I, I. (2004).  Lingual frenulum: classification and speech interference.  The International Journal of Orofacial Myology.  30, 31-28.

Ray, J. (2003). Effects of orofacial myofunctional therapy on speech intelligibility in individuals with persistent articulatory impairments. International Journal of Orofacial Myology, 29, 5-14.

Ray, J. (2006). Orofacial myofunctional deficits in elderly individuals. International Journal of Orofacial Myology, 32, 22-31.

Satomi, M. (2001). The relationship of lip strength and lip sealing in MFT.  International Journal of Orofacial Myology, 27, 18-23.

Sousa, R. V. D., Ribeiro, G. L. A., Firmino, R. T., Martins, C. C., Granville-Garcia, A. F., & Paiva, S. M. (2014). Prevalence and associated factors for the development of anterior open bite and posterior crossbite in the primary dentition. Brazilian Dental Journal25(4), 336-342. 

Stahl, F., Grabowski, R., Gaebel, M., & Kundt, G. (2007). Relationship between occlusal findings and orofacial myofunctional status in primary and mixed dentition. Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics, 68(2), 74-90.

Vázquez-Nava, F., Quezada-Castillo, J. A., Oviedo-Treviño, S., Saldivar-González, A. H., Sánchez-Nuncio, H. R., Beltrán-Guzmán, F. J., … Vázquez Rodríguez, C. F. (2006). Association between allergic rhinitis, bottle feeding, non-nutritive sucking habits, and malocclusion in the primary dentition. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 91(10), 836-840.

Vig, P. & Cohen, A. (1979) Vertical growth of the lips: A serial cephalometric study. American Journal of Orthodontics, 75, 405-415.

Wadsworth, S. D., Maul, C. A., & Stevens, E. J. (1998). The prevalence of orofacial myofunctional disorders among children identified with speech and language disorders in grades kindergarten through six. International Journal of Orofacial Myology, 24, 1-19.

Warren, J. J., & Bishara, S. E. (2002). Duration of nutritive and nonnutritive sucking behaviors and their effects on the dental arches in the primary dentition. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 121(4), 347-356.

Warren, J. J., Slayton, R. L., Yonezu, T., Bishara, S. E., Levy, S. M., & Kanellis, M. J. (2005). Effects of nonnutritive sucking habits on occlusal characteristics in the mixed dentition. Pediatric Dentistry, 27(6), 445-450.

Webb, A.N., Hao, W., & Hong, P. (2013). The effect of tongue-tie division on breastfeeding and speech articulation: A systematic review. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 77, 635-646.

Zardetto, C. G., Rodrigues, C. R. M. D., & Stefani, F. M. (2002). Effects of different pacifiers on the primary dentition and oral myofunctional structures of preschool children. Pediatric Dentistry, 24(6), 552-580.  

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