American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2016). Code of ethics [Ethics]. Available from www.asha.org/policy/.
Anstendig, K. D. (1999). Is selective mutism an anxiety disorder? Rethinking its DSM-IV classification. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 13, 417–434.
Beidel, D. C., & Turner, S. M. (2007). Shy children, phobic adults. Nature and treatment of social anxiety disorder (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Beidel, D. C., Turner, S. M., & Morris, T. M. (1999). Psychopathology of childhood social phobia. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 643–650.
Bergman, R., Piacentini, J., & McCracken, J. (2002). Prevalence and description of selective mutism in a school-based sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 938–946.
Black, B., & Uhde, T. W. (1995). Psychiatric characteristics of children with selective mutism: A pilot study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 847–856.
Brown, B. J., & Lloyd, H. (1975). A controlled study of children not speaking at school. Journal of the Association of Workers for Maladjusted Children, 3, 49–63.
Busse, R. T., & Downey, J. (2011). Selective mutism: A three-tiered approach to prevention and intervention. Contemporary School Psychology, 15, 53–63.
Camposano, L. (2011). Silent suffering: Children with selective mutism. The Professional Counselor, 1(1), 46–56.
Cohan, S., Chavira, D. & Stein, M.B. (2006). Practitioner Review: Psychosocial interventions for children with selective mutism: a critical evaluation of the literature from 1990-2005. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47 (11), 1085–1097.
Cohan, S. L., Price, J. M., & Stein, M. B. (2006). Suffering in silence: Why a developmental psychopathology perspective on selective mutism is needed. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 27, 341–355.
Cunningham, C., McHolm, A., Boyle, M., & Patel, S. (2004). Behavioral and emotional adjustment, family functioning, academic performance, and social relationships in children with selective mutism. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45, 1363–1372.
Dow, S. P., Sonies, B. C., Scheib, D., Moss, S. E., & Leonard, H. L. (1995). Practical guidelines for the assessment and treatment of selective mutism. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 836–846.
Dummit, E. S., Klein, R. G., Tancer, N. K., Asche, B., Martin, J., & Fairbanks, J. A. (1997). Systematic assessment of 50 children with selective mutism. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 653–660.
Elizur, Y., & Perednik, R. (2003). Prevalence and description of selective mutism in immigrant and native families: A controlled study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 1451–1459.
Fernald, 2011. DIR/Floortime in Assessing and Treating Selective Mutism. Retrieved from https://www.pediastaff.com/resources-dir--floortime-in-assessing-and-treating-selective-mutism--featured-april-25th-2011.
Hungerford, S. H., Edwards, J. E., & Iantosca, A. (2003, November). A socio-communication intervention model for selective mutism. Paper presented at the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Convention, Chicago, IL.
Individuals With Disabilities Education Act, 20 U.S.C. § 1400 (2004).
Johnson, M., & Wintgens, A. (2001). The selective mutism resource manual. London, United Kingdom: Speechmark Publishing.
Kearney, C. (2010). Helping children with selective mutism and their parents. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Kehle, T. J., Bray, M. A., Byer-Alcorace, G. F., Theodore, L. A., & Kovac, L. M. (2011). Augmented self-modeling as an intervention for selective mutism. Psychology in the Schools, 49, 93–103.
Klein, E. R., & Armstrong, S. L. (2013). Speech-language therapy and selective mutism. Retrieved from
Klein, E. R., Armstrong, S. L., Skira, K., & Gordon, J. (2016). Social Communication Anxiety Treatment (S-CAT) for children and families with selective mutism: A pilot study. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1–19. doi:10.1177/1359104516633497
Klein, E. R., Shipon-Blum, E., & Spillman-Kennedy, D. (2009, November). What can we do to assess and treat selective mutism? Paper presented at the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Convention, New Orleans, LA.
Kotrba, A. (2015). Selective mutism: A guide for therapists, educators, and parents. Eau Claire, WI: PESI Publishing and Media.
Kristensen, H. (2000). Selective mutism and comorbidity with developmental disorder/delay, anxiety disorder, and elimination disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 249–256.
Kumpulainen, K., Räsänen, E., Raaska, H., & Somppi, V. (1998). Selective mutism among second-graders in elementary school. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 7, 24–29.
Kurtz, S. (2015). SM 101: Primer for parents, therapists & educators [Video file]. Retrieved from
Mac, D. (2015). Suffering in silence: Breaking through selective mutism. Bloomington, IN: Balboa Press.
Manassis, K., Fung, D., Tannock, R., Sloman, L., Fiksenbaum, L., & McInnes, A. (2003). Characterizeing selective mutism: Is it more than social anxiety? Depression and Anxiety, 18, 153–161.
Manassis, K., Oerbeck, B., & Overgaard, K. R. (2015). The use of medication in selective mutism: A systematic review. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 6, 1–8.
McInnes, A., Fung, D., Manassis, K., Fiksenbaum, L., & Tannock, R. (2004). Narrative skills in children with selective mutism: An exploratory study. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 13, 304–315.
Middendorf, J., & Buringrud, J. (2009, November). Selective mutism: Strategies for intervention. Paper presented at the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Convention, New Orleans, LA.
Oerbeck, B., Stein, M. B., Wentzel‐Larsen, T., Langsrud, Ø., & Kristensen, H. (2014). A randomized controlled trial of a home and school‐based intervention for selective mutism—defocused communication and behavioural techniques. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 19(3), 192–198.
Richard, G. J. (2011). The source for selective mutism. East Moline, IL: LinguiSystems.
Rollnick, S., & Miller, W. R. (1995). What is motivational interviewing? Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 23, 325–334.
Schum, R. (2002). Selective mutism: An integrated approach. The ASHA Leader, 7(17), 4–6. Retrieved from
Schum, R. (2006). Clinical perspectives on the treatment of selective mutism. Journal of Speech-Language Pathology and Applied Behavioral Analysis , 1(2), 149–163.
Selective Mutism Anxiety Research and Treatment Center & Shipon-Blum, E. (2012).Selective Mutism - Stages of Social Communication Comfort Scale [PDF]. Retrieved from
Sharkey, L., & McNicholas, F. (2008). 'More than 100 years of silence', elective mutism: A review of the literature. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 17, 255–263.
Shipon-Blum, E. (2010). Transitional stage of communication [PDF]. Retrieved from
Steinhausen, H. C., & Juzi, C. (1996). Elective mutism: An analysis of 100 cases. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 606–614.
Toppelberg, C. O., Tabors, P., Coggins, A., Lum, K., & Burger, C. (2005). Differential diagnosis of selective mutism in bilingual children. Journal of American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry, 44, 592–595.
Viana, A. G., Beidel, D. C., & Rabian, B. (2009). Selective mutism: A review and integration of the last 15 years. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 57–67. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2008.09.009