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Orofacial Myofunctional Disorders

Signs and symptoms of orofacial myofunctional disorders may include:

  • Open mouth, habitual lips-apart resting posture (in children, adolescents, and adults)
  • Structural abnormalities
    • Restricted lingual frenulum
    • Dental abnormalities, such as excessive anterior overjet, anterior, bilateral, unilateral, or posterior open bite, and under bite
  • Abnormal tongue rest posture, either forward, interdental, or lateral posterior (unilateral or bilateral), which does not allow for normal resting relationship between tongue, teeth, and jaws, otherwise known as the interocclusal space at rest, or the freeway space (Mason, 2011)
  • Distorted productions of /s, z/ often with an interdental lisp. Abnormal lingual dental articulatory placement for /t, d, l, n, ʧ, ʤ, ʃ, ʓ/
  • Drooling and poor oral control, specifically past the age of 2 years
  • Nonnutritive sucking habits, including pacifier use after age of 12 months, as well as finger, thumb, or tongue sucking (Warren & Bishara, 2002; Warren, et al., 2005; Zardetto, Rodrigues & Stefani, 2002)
  • Lack of a consistent linguapalatal seal during liquid, solid, and saliva swallows.
  • Interdental lingual contact or linguadental contact with the anterior or lateral dentition during swallows.

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