Causes of pediatric TBI are varied and appear to differ by age. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) identified the following leading causes of TBI in children and adolescents ages 0 to 14:
- Falls (50.2%)
- Struck by/against events (24.8%)
- Motor vehicle accidents (6.8%)
- Assault (2.9%)
- Unknown/other (15.3%)
Falls and assault (e.g., shaken baby syndrome or other physical abuse) are the most common mechanisms of TBI in infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. TBI secondary to velocity injury (e.g., motor vehicle or bicycle accidents, sports injuries) occurs more often in elementary school children and adolescents (Faul et al., 2010).