Childhood Apraxia of Speech

Adegbola, A. A., Cox, G. F., Bradshaw, E. M., Hafler, D. A., Gimelbrant, A., & Chess, A. (2015). Monoallelic expression of the human FOXP2 speech gene. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112, 6848–6854.

Albert, M., Sparks, R., & Helm, N. (1973). Melodic intonation therapy for aphasia. Archives of Neurology, 29, 130–131.

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2007a). Childhood apraxia of speech [Position statement]. Retrieved from www.asha.org/policy/

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2007b). Childhood apraxia of speech [Technical report]. Retrieved from www.asha.org/policy/

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2016a). Code of ethics [Ethics]. Retrieved from www.asha.org/policy/

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2016b). Scope of practice in speech-language pathology [Scope of practice]. Retrieved from www.asha.org/policy/

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Bashina, V. M., Simashkova, N. V., Grachev, V. V., & Gorbachevskaya, N. L. (2002). Speech and motor disturbances in Rett syndrome. Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology, 32, 323–327.

Bashir, A., Grahamjones, F., & Bostwick, R. (2008). A touch-cue method of therapy for developmental verbal apraxia. Seminars in Speech and Language, 5, 127–137.

Bornman, E., Alant, E., & Meiring, J. (2001). The use of a digital voice output device to facilitate language development in a child with developmental apraxia of speech: A case study. Disability and Rehabilitation, 23, 623–634.

Boyar, F. Z., Whitney, M. M., Lossie, A. C., Gray, B. A., Keller, K., Stalker, H. J., . . . Driscoll, D. J. (2001). A family with a grand-maternally derived interstitial duplication of proximal 15q. Clinical Genetics, 60,421–430.

Brown, T., Cupido, C., Scarfone, H., Pape, K., Galea, V., & McComas, A. (2000). Developmental apraxia arising from neonatal brachial plexus palsy. Neurology, 55, 24–30.

Byrd, K., & Cooper, E. (1989). Apraxic speech characteristics in stuttering, developmentally apraxic, and normal speaking children. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 14, 215–229.

Crary, M. A., & Anderson, P. (1991, November). Speech and motor performance in developmental apraxia of speech. Technical session presented at the Annual Convention of the American-Speech-Language-Hearing Association, Atlanta, GA.

Cumley, G. D., & Swanson, S. (1999). Augmentative and alternative communication options for children with developmental apraxia of speech: Three case studies. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 15,110–125.

Dale, P. S., & Hayden, D. A. (2013). Treating speech subsystems in childhood apraxia of speech with tactual input: The PROMPT approach. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 22, 644–661.

Davis, B., Jakielski, K., & Marquardt, T. (1998). Developmental apraxia of speech: Determiners of differential diagnosis. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 12, 25–45.

Davis, B. L., & Velleman, S. L. (2000). Differential diagnosis and treatment of developmental apraxia of speech in infants and toddlers. Infant-Toddler Intervention: The Transdisciplinary Journal, 10, 177–192.

Dewey, D., Roy, E. A., Square-Storer, P. A., & Hayden, D. (1988). Limb and oral praxic abilities of children with verbal sequencing deficits. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 30, 743–751.

Gildersleeve-Neumann, C., & Goldstein, B. (2014). Cross-linguistic generalization in the treatment of two sequential Spanish-English bilingual children with speech sound disorders. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 17, 1–15.

Hall, P. K. (2000a). A letter to the parent(s) of a child with developmental apraxia of speech. Part I: Speech characteristics of the disorder. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 31, 169–172.

Hall, P. K. (2000b). A letter to the parent(s) of a child with developmental apraxia of speech. Part IV: Treatment of DAS. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 31, 179–181.

Hall. P. K., Jordan, L., & Robin, D. (1993). Developmental apraxia of speech: Theory and clinical practice. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Hayden, D. A., Eigen, J., Walker, A., & Olsen, L. (2010). PROMPT: A tactually grounded model. In A. L. Williams, S. McLeod, & R. J. McCauley (Eds.), Interventions for speech sound disorders in children (pp. 453–474). Baltimore, MD: Brookes.

Helfrich-Miller, K. R. (1984). Melodic intonation therapy and developmentally apraxic children. Seminars in Speech and Language, 5, 119–126.

Helfrich-Miller, K. R. (1994). Melodic intonation therapy and developmentally apraxic children. Clinics in Communication Disorders, 4,175–182.

Hodson, B. (1989). Phonological remediation: A cycles approach. In N. A. Creaghead, P. W. Newman, & W. Secord (Eds.), Assessment and remediation of articulatory and phonological disorders (pp. 323–334), Columbus, Ohio: Merrill.

Hodson, B. (2010). Evaluating and enhancing children’s phonological systems: Research and theory to practice. Wichita, KS: PhonoComp.

Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004. P.L. 108-446, 20 U.S.C. §§ 1400 et seq. Retrieved from https://sites.ed.gov/idea/

Iuzzini, J., & Forrest, K. (2010). Evaluation of a combined treatment approach for childhood apraxia of speech. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 24, 335–345.

Iuzzini-Seigel, J. (2017). Speech assessment in children with childhood apraxia of speech. Perspectives on Neurogenic Communication Disorders, 2, 47–60.

Kummer, A. W., Lee, L., Stutz, L. S., Maroney, A., & Brandt, J. W. (2007). The prevalence of apraxia characteristics in patients with velocardiofacial syndrome as compared with other cleft populations. The Cleft Palate–Craniofacial Journal, 44, 175–181.[PB1] 

Laffin, J. J., Raca, G., Jackson, C. A., Strand, E. A., Jakielski, K. J., & Shriberg, L. D. (2012). Novel candidate genes and regions for childhood apraxia of speech identified by array comparative genomic hybridization. Genetics in Medicine, 14,928–936.

Lai, C. S. L., Fisher, S. E., Hurst, J. A., Levy, E. R., Hodgson, S., Fox, M., . . . Monaco, A. P. (2000). The SPCH1 region on human 7q31: Genomic characterization of the critical interval and localization of translocations associated with speech and language disorder. American Journal of Human Genetics, 67,357–368.

Lai, C. S. L., Fisher, S. E., Hurst, J. A., Vargha-Khadem, F., & Monaco, P. (2001, October 4). A forkhead-domain gene is mutated in a severe speech and language disorder. Nature, 413, 519–523.

Lewis, B. A., & Ekelman, B. L. (2007). Literacy problems associated with childhood apraxia of speech. Perspectives on Language Learning and Education, 14, 10–17.

Lewis, B. A., Freebairn, L. A., Hansen, A. J., Iyengar, S. K., & Taylor, H. G. (2004). School-age follow-up of children with childhood apraxia of speech. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 35, 122–140.

Liégeois, F., Baldeweg, T., Connelly, A., Gadian, D. G., & Vargha-Khadem, F. (2003). Language fMRI abnormalities associated with FOXP2 gene mutation. Nature Neuroscience, 6, 1230–1237.

Marcus, G. F., & Fisher, S. E. (2003). FOXP2 in focus: What can genes tell us about speech and language? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7, 257–262.

Martin, V. C., Kubitz, K. R., & Maher, L. M. (2001). Melodic intonation therapy. Perspectives on Neurophysiology and Neurogenic Speech and Language Disorders, 11, 33–37.

Maas, E., Gildersleeve-Neumann, C. E., Jakielski, K. J., & Stoeckel, R. (2014). Motor-based intervention protocols in treatment of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Current Developmental Disorders Reports, 1, 197–206.

Maas, E., Robin, D. A., Austermann Hula, S. N., Freedman, S. E., Wulf, G., Ballard, K. J., & Schmidt, R. A. (2008). Principles of motor learning in treatment of motor speech disorders. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 17, 277–298.

McCabe, P., Macdonald-D’Silva, A. G., van Rees, L. J., Ballard, K. J., & Arciuli, J. (2014). Orthographically sensitive treatment for dysprosody in children with childhood apraxia of speech using ReST intervention. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 17, 137–146.

McCabe, P., Murray, E., Thomas, D., & Evans, P. (2017). Clinician manual for Rapid Syllable Transition Treatment (ReST). Camperdown, Victoria, Australia: The University of Sydney.

McCabe, P., Rosenthal, J. B., & McLeod, S. (1998). Features of developmental dyspraxia in the general speech impaired population. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 12, 105–126.

McCauley, R. J., & Strand, E. A. (1999). Treatment of children exhibiting phonological disorder with motor speech involvement. In A. J. Caruso & E. A. Strand (Eds.), Clinical management of motor speech disorders in children (pp. 187–208). New York, NY: Thieme.

McCauley, R. J., & Strand, E. A. (2008). A review of standardized tests of nonverbal oral and speech motor performance in children. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 17, 81–91.

McLeod, S., Verdon, S., & The International Expert Panel on Multilingual Children’s Speech. (2017). Tutorial: Speech assessment for multilingual children who do not speak the same language(s) as the speech-language pathologist. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 26, 691–708.

McNeill, B. C., Gillon G. T., & Dodd B. (2009a). Effectiveness of an integrated phonological awareness approach for children with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Child Language and Teaching Therapy, 25, 341–366.

McNeill, B. C., Gillon, G. T., & Dodd, B. (2009b). Phonological awareness and early reading development in childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 44, 175–192.

McNeill, B. C., Gillon, G. T., & Dodd, B. (2010). The longer term effects of an integrated phonological awareness intervention for children with childhood apraxia of speech. Asia Pacific Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing, 13, 145–161.

McNeil, M. R., Robin, D. A., & Schmidt, R. A. (1997). Apraxia of speech: Definition, differentiation, and treatment. In M. R. McNeil (Ed.), Clinical management of sensorimotor speech disorders (pp. 311–344). New York, NY: Thieme.

Moriarty, B., & Gillon, G. T. (2006). Phonological awareness intervention for children with childhood apraxia of speech. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 41, 713–734.

Murray, E., McCabe, P., & Ballard, K. J. (2014). A systematic review of treatment outcomes for children with childhood apraxia of speech. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 23, 486–504.                                                                                                                                                                     

Murray, E., McCabe, P., & Ballard, K. J. (2015). A randomized controlled trial for children with childhood apraxia of speech comparing Rapid Syllable Transition treatment and the Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme–Third Edition. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 58, 669–686.

Murray, E., McCabe, P., Heard, R., & Ballard, K. J. (2015). Differential diagnosis of children with suspected childhood apraxia of speech. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 58, 43–60.

Namasivayam, A. K., Pukonen, M., Goshulak, D., Hard, J., Rudzicz, F., Rietveld, T., . . . van Lieshout, P. (2015). Treatment intensity and childhood apraxia of speech. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 50, 529–546.

Overby, M., & Caspari, S. (2015). Volubility, consonant, and syllable characteristics in infants and toddlers later diagnosed with childhood apraxia of speech: A pilot study. Journal of Communication Disorders, 55, 44–62.

Overby, M., Caspari, S., & Schreiber, J. (in review). Volubility and consonant emergence in infants and toddlers later diagnosed with CAS, SSD, and typical development: A retrospective video analysis. Manuscript submitted for review.

Pascoe, M., Stackhouse, J., & Wells, B. (2006). Persisting speech difficulties in children’s speech and literacy difficulties: Book 3. West Sussex, England: Whurr.

Portland State University (n.d.). Considerations when working with a bilingual child with CAS (Unpublished manuscript). Retrieved from https://www.pdx.edu/multicultural-topics-communication-sciences-disorders/considerations-when-working-with-a-bilingual-child-with-cas

Preston, J. L., Brick, N., & Landi, N. (2013). Ultrasound biofeedback treatment for persisting childhood apraxia of speech. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 22, 627–643.

Preston, J. L., Leece, M. C., & Maas, E. (2016, August 30). Intensive treatment with ultrasound visual feedback for speech sound errors in childhood apraxia. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10, 440. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2016.00440

Preston, J. L., Leece, M. C., McNamara, K., & Maas, E. (2017). Variable practice during ultrasound visual feedback treatment for childhood apraxia of speech. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 26, 840–852.

Preston, J. L., Maas, E., Whittle, J., Leece, M. C., & McCabe, P. (2016). Limited acquisition and generalisation of rhotics with ultrasound visual feedback in childhood apraxia. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 30, 363–381.

Prezas, R. F., & Hodson, B. W. (2010). The cycles phonological remediation approach. In A. L. Williams, S. McLeod, & R. J. McCauley (Eds.), Interventions for speech sound disorders in children (pp. 137–158). Baltimore, MD: Brookes.

[PB1] Reuter, M. S., Riess, A., Moog, U., Briggs, T. A., Chandler, K. E., Rauch, A., . . . Zweier, C. (2017). FOXP2 variants in 14 individuals with developmental speech and language disorders broaden the mutational and clinical spectrum. Journal of Medical Genetics, 54, 64–72.

Scheffer, I. E., Jones, L., Pozzebon, M., Howell, R. A., Saling, M. M., & Berkovic, S. F. (1995). Autosomal dominant rolandic epilepsy and speech dyspraxia: A new syndrome with anticipation. Annals of Neurology, 38, 633–642.

Shriberg, L. D., Aram, D., & Kwiatkowski, J. (1997). Developmental apraxia of speech: I. Descriptive and theoretical perspectives. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 40, 273–285.

Shriberg, L. D., Ballard, K. J., Tomblin, J. B., Duffy, J. R., Odell, K. H., & Williams, C. A. (2006). Speech, prosody, and voice characteristics of a mother and daughter with a 7;13 translocation affecting FOXP2. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 49, 500–525.

Shriberg, L. D., Campbell, T. F., Karlsson, H. B., Brown, R. L., McSweeny, J. L., & Nadler, C. J. (2003). A diagnostic marker for childhood apraxia of speech: The lexical stress ratio. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 17, 549–574.

Shriberg, L. D., & McSweeny, J. L. (2002). Classification and misclassification of childhood apraxia of speech (Technical Report No. 11). Madison, WI: Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin.

Shriberg, L. D., Paul, R., Black, L. M., & van Santen, J. P. (2011). The hypothesis of apraxia of speech in children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 405–426.

Shriberg, L. D., Potter, N., & Strand, E. A. (2011). Prevalence and phenotype of childhood apraxia of speech in youth with galactosemia. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 54, 487–519.

Shriberg, L. D., Strand, E. A., Fourakis, M., Jakielski, K. J., Hall, S. D., Karlsson, H. B., . . . Wilson, D. L. (2017). A diagnostic marker to discriminate childhood apraxia of speech from speech delay: I. Development and description of the pause marker. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 60(Suppl.), S1096–S1117.

Skinder-Meredith, A. (2001). Differential diagnosis: Developmental apraxia of speech and phonologic delay. Augmentative Communication News, 14(2–3), 5–8. Retrieved from http://www.augcominc.com/newsletters/index.cfm/newsletter_30.pdf

Spinelli, M., Rocha, A., Giacheti, C., & Richieri-Costa, A. (1995). Word-finding difficulties, verbal paraphasis, and verbal dyspraxia in ten individuals with fragile x syndrome. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 60, 39–43.

Strand, E. (2017, March). Appraising apraxia: When a speech-sound disorder is severe, how do you know if it’s childhood apraxia of speech? The ASHA Leader, 22(3), 50­–58.

Strand, E. A., & Debertine, P. (2000). The efficacy of integral stimulation intervention with developmental apraxia of speech. Journal of Medical Speech-Language Pathology, 8, 295–300.

Strand, E. A., & McCauley, R. J. (2019). Dynamic evaluation of motor speech skill (DEMSS) manual. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.

Strand, E. A., McCauley, R. J., Weigand, S., Stoeckel, R., & Baas, B. (2013). A motor speech assessment for children with severe speech disorders: Reliability and validity evidence. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 56, 505–520.

Strand, E. A., Shriberg, L. D., & Campbell, T. F. (2003). Childhood apraxia of speech: Suggested diagnostic markers for the younger child. In L. D. Shriberg & T. F. Campbell (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2002 Childhood Apraxia of Speech Symposium (pp. 75–79). Carlsbad, CA: The Hendrix Foundation.

Strand, E. A., & Skinder, A. (1999). Treatment of developmental apraxia of speech: Integral stimulation methods. In A. Caruso & E. Strand (Eds.), Clinical management of motor speech disorders in children (pp. 109–148). New York, NY: Thieme.

Strand, E. A., Stoeckel, R., & Baas, B. (2006). Treatment of severe childhood apraxia of speech: A treatment efficacy study. Journal of Medical Speech-Language Pathology, 14, 297–307.

Thomas, D. C., McCabe, P., & Ballard, K. J. (2014). Rapid Syllable Transitions (ReST) treatment for childhood apraxia of speech: The effect of lower dose-frequency. Journal of Communication Disorders, 51,29–42.

Thomas, D. C., McCabe, P., Ballard, K. J., & Lincoln, M. (2016). Telehealth delivery of Rapid Syllable Transitions (ReST) treatment for childhood apraxia of speech. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 51,654–671.

Thoonen, G., Maassen, B., Wit, J., Gabreëls, F., & Schreuder, R. (1996). The integrated use of maximum performance tasks in differential diagnostic evaluations among children with motor speech disorders. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 10, 311–336.

Thoonen, G., Maassen, B., Gabreëls, F., & Schreuder, R. (1999). Validity of maximum performance tasks to diagnose motor speech disorders in children. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 13, 1–23.

Tomblin, J. B., O’Brien, M., Shriberg, L. D., Williams, C., Murray, J., Patil, S., . . . Ballard, K. (2009). Language features in a mother and daughter of a chromosome 7;13 translocation involving FOXP2. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 52, 1157–1174.

Velleman, S. L. (2003). Childhood apraxia of speech: Resource guide. New York, NY: Thomson.

Velleman, S. L., Huffman, M. J., & Mervis, C. B. (2012, June). Relations between speech and motor-speech performance in children with 7q11.23 duplication syndrome. Paper presented at the International Child Phonology Conference, Minneapolis, MN.

Velleman, S. L., & Strand, K. (1994). Developmental verbal dyspraxia. In J. E. Bernthal & N. W. Bankson (Eds.), Child phonology: Characteristics, assessment, and intervention with special populations (pp. 110–139). New York, NY: Thieme.

Warren, S. F., Fey, M. E., & Yoder, P. J. (2007). Differential treatment intensity research: A missing link to creating optimally effective communication interventions. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 13, 70–77.

Williams, P., & Stackhouse, J. (1998). Diadochokinetic skills: Normal and atypical performance in children aged 3-5 years. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 33, 481–486.

Williams, P., & Stackhouse, J. (2000). Rate, accuracy and consistency: Diadochokinetic performance of young, normally developing children. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 14, 267–293.

Williams, P., & Stephens, H. (2010). The Nuffield Center Dyspraxia Programme. In A. L. Williams, S. McLeod, & R. J. McCauley (Eds.), Interventions for speech sound disorders in children (pp. 159178). Baltimore, MD: Brookes.

World Health Organization. (2001). International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Geneva, Switzerland: Author.

Yavas, M., & Goldstein, B. (1998). Phonological assessment and treatment of bilingual speakers. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 7, 49–60.

Yorkston, K. M., Beukelman, D. R., Strand, E. A., & Hakel, M. (2010). Management of motor speech disorders in children and adults. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Yorkston, K. M., Strand, E. A., & Kennedy, M. R. (1996). Comprehensibility of dysarthric speech: Implications for assessment and treatment planning. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 5, 55–66.

Zeesman, S., Nowaczyk, M. J., Teshima, I., Roberts, W., Cardy, J. O., Brian, J., . . . Scherer, S. W. (2006). Speech and language impairment and oromotor dyspraxia due to deletion of 7q31 that involves FOXP2. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A, 140, 509–514.

Content Disclaimer: The Practice Portal, ASHA policy documents, and guidelines contain information for use in all settings; however, members must consider all applicable local, state and federal requirements when applying the information in their specific work setting.