American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2004). Preferred practice patterns for the profession of speech-language pathology [Preferred Practice Patterns]. Available from
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2006). Preferred practice patterns for the profession of audiology [Preferred Practice Patterns]. Available from
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2016a). Code of ethics [Ethics]. Available from
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2016b). Scope of practice in speech-language pathology [Scope of Practice]. Available from
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2018). Scope of practice in audiology [Scope of Practice]. Available from www.asha.org/policy.
American Telemedicine Association. (2010). A blueprint for telerehabilitation guidelines. Washington, DC: Author.
Biagio, L., Swanepoel, D. W., Adeyemo, A., Hall III, J. W., & Vinck, B. (2013). Asynchronous video-otoscopy with a telehealth facilitator. Telemedicine and e-Health, 19,252–258.
Botasso, M., Sanches, S. G. G., Bento, R. F., & Samelli, A. G. (2015). Teleaudiometry as a screening method in school children. Clinics, 70, 283–288.
Brennan, D. M., Georgeadis, A. C., Baron, C. R., & Barker, L. M. (2004). The effect of videoconference-based telerehab on story retelling performance by brain injured subjects and its implication for remote speech-language therapy. Telemedicine Journal and e-Health, 10, 147–154.
Campos, P. D., & Ferrari, D. V. J. (2012). Teleaudiology: Evaluation of teleconsultation efficacy for hearing aid fitting. Journal da Sociedade Brasileira de Fonoaudiologia, 24, 301–308.
Carey, B., O’Brian, S., Lowe, R., & Onslow, M. (2014). Webcam delivery of the Camperdown Program for adolescents who stutter: A phase II trial. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 45, 314–324.
Carey, B., O’Brian, S., Onslow, M., Packman, A., & Menzies, R. (2012). Webcam delivery of the Camperdown Program for adolescents who stutter: A phase I trial. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 43, 370–380.
Cassel, S. (2016). Case reports: Trial dysphagia interventions conducted via telehealth. International Journal of Telerehabilitation, 8, 71–76.
Choi, J. M., Lee, H. B., Park, C. S., Oh, S. H., & Park, K. S. (2007). PC-based tele-audiometry. Telemedicine Journal and e-Health, 13, 501–508.
Cohn, E., R., & Watzlaf, V. J. M. (2011). Privacy and Internet-based telepractice. Perspectives on Telepractice, 1, 26–37.
Crutchley, S., & Campbell, M. (2010). Telespeech therapy pilot project: Stakeholder satisfaction. International Journal of Telerehabilitation, 2, 23–30.
Crutchley, S., Dudley, W., & Campbell, M. (2010). Articulation assessment through videoconferencing: A pilot study. Communications of Global Information Technology, 2, 12–23.
Eikelboom, R., Atlas, M., Mbao, M., & Gallop, M. (2002). Tele-otology: Planning, design, development and implementation. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 8, 14–17.
Gabel, R., Grogan-Johnson, S., Alvares, R., Bechstein, L., & Taylor, J. (2013). A field study of telepractice for school intervention using the ASHA NOMS K-12 database. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 35, 44–53.
Grogan-Johnson, S., Alvares, R., Rowan, L., & Creaghead, N. (2010). A pilot study comparing the effectiveness of speech language therapy provided by telemedicine with conventional on-site therapy. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 16, 134–139.
Grogan-Johnson, S., Gabel, R., Taylor, J., Rowan, L., Alvarex, R., & Schenker, J. (2011). A pilot exploration of speech sound disorder intervention delivered by telehealth to school-age children. International Journal of Telerehabilitation, 3, 31–42.
Grogan-Johnson, S., Schmidt, A., Schenker, Alvares, R., Rowan, L., & Taylor, J. (2013). A comparison of speech sound intervention delivered by telepractice and side-by-side service delivery models. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 34, 210–220.
Halpern, A. E., Ramig, L. O., Matos, C. E. C., Petska-Cable, J. A., Spielman, J. L., . . . McFarland, D. H. (2012). Innovative technology for the assisted delivery of intensive voice treatment (LSVT®LOUD) for Parkinson disease. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 21, 354–367.
Higgins, W. J., Luczynski, K. C., Carroll, R. A., Fisher, W. W., & Mudford, O. C. (2017). Evaluation of a telehealth training package to remotely train staff to conduct a preference assessment. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 50, 238–251.
Hill, A. J., Theodoros, D. G., Russell, T. G., Cahill, L. M., Ward, E. C., & Clark, K. M. (2006). An Internet-based telerehabilitation system for the assessment of motor speech disorders: A pilot study. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 15, 45–56.
Hughes, M. L., Goehring, J. L., Baudhuin, J. L., Diaz, G. R., Sanford, T., Harpster, R., & Valente, D. L. (2012). Use of telehealth for research and clinical measures in cochlear implant recipients: A validation study.Journal Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 55, 1112–1127.
Iacono, T., Dissanayake, C., Trembath, D., Hurdy, K., Erickson, S., & Spong, J. (2016). Family and practitioner perspectives on telehealth for services to young children with autism. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 231, 63–73.
Jarvis-Selinger, S., Chan, E., Payne, R., Plohman, K., & Ho, K. (2008). Clinical telehealth across the disciplines: Lessons learned. Telemedicine and e-Health, 14, 720–725.
Kokesh, J., Ferguson, A. S., Patricoski, C., & LeMaster, B. (2009). Traveling an audiologist to provide otolaryngology care using store-and-forward telemedicine. Telemedicine and e-Health, 15, 758–763.
Krumm, M., Huffman, T., Dick, K., & Klich, R. (2007). Providing infant hearing screening using OAEs and AABR using telehealth technology. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare,14, 102–104.
Krumm, M., Ribera, J., & Klich, R. (2007). Providing basic hearing tests using remote computing technology. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 13, 406–410.
Krumm, M., Ribera, J., & Schmiedge, J. (2005). Using a telehealth medium for objective hearing testing: Implications for supporting rural universal newborn hearing screening programs.Seminars in Hearing, 26, 3–12.
Lancaster, P., Krumm, M., Ribera, J., & Klich, R. (2008). Remote hearing screenings via telepractice in a rural elementary school. American Journal of Audiology, 17, 114–122.
Lewis, C., Packman, A., Onslow, M., Simpson, J., & Jones, M. (2008). A Phase II trial of telehealth delivery of the Lidcombe Program of Early Stuttering Intervention. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 17, 139–149.
Macoir, J., Martel Sauvageau, V., Boissy, P., Tousignant, M., & Tousignant, M. (2017, January 23). In-home synchronous telespeech therapy to improve functional communication in chronic poststroke aphasia: Results from a quasi-experimental study. Telemedicine and e-Health. Advance online publication. doi:10.1089/tmj.2016.0235
Malandraki, G. A., McCullough, G., He, X., McWeeny, E., & Perlman, A. L. (2011). Teledynamic evaluation of oropharyngeal swallowing. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 54, 497–1505.
Masalski, M., & Kręcicki, T. (2013). Self-test web-based pure-tone audiometry: Validity evaluation and measurement error analysis. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 15, e71.
Mashima, P., & Brown, J. (2011). Remote management of voice and swallowing disorders. Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America, 44, 1305–1316.
McCullough, A. (2001). Viability and effectiveness of teletherapy for pre-school children with special needs. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 36, 321–326.
Parmanto, B., Pulantara, W., Schutte, J., Saptono, A., & McCue, M. (2013). An integrated telehealth system for remote administration of an adult autism assessment. Telemedicine and e-Health, 19, 88–94.
Penteado, S. P., de Lima Ramos, S., Battistella, L. R., Marone, S. A. M., & Bento, R. F. (2012). Remote hearing aid fitting: Tele-audiology in the context of Brazilian Public Policy. International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology, 16, 371–381.
Perlman, A. L., & Witthawaskul, W. (2002). Real-time remote telefluoroscopic assessment of patients with dysphagia. Dysphagia, 17, 162–167.
Polovoy, C. (2009, June). Aural rehabilitation telepractice: International project links NY student clinicians, Bolivian children. The ASHA Leader, 14, 20–21.
Ribera, J. (2005). Interjudge reliability and validation of telehealth applications of the Hearing in Noise Test. Seminars in Hearing, 26, 13–18.
Rose, D. A. D., Furner, S., Hall, A., Montgomery, K., Datsavras, E., & Clarke, P. (2000). Videoconferencing for speech and language therapy in schools. BT Technology Journal, 18, 101–104.
Saunders, G. H., & Chisolm, T. H. (2015). Connected audiological rehabilitation: 21st century innovations.Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, 26, 768–776.
Simacek, J., Dimian, A., & McComas, J. (2017). Communication intervention for young children with severe neurodevelopmental disabilities via telehealth. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 47, 744–767.
Skarzyński, P. H., Świerniak, W., Piłka, A., Skarżynska, M. B., Włodarczyk, A. W., Kholmatov, D., . . . Hatzopoulos, S. (2016). A hearing screening program for children in primary schools in Tajikistan: A telemedicine model. Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research, 22, 2424–2430.
Stuart, A. (2016). Infant diagnostic evaluation via teleaudiology following newborn screening in Eastern North Carolina. The Journal of Early Hearing Detections and Intervention, 1, 63–71.
Sutherland, R., Hodge, A., Trembath, D., Drevensek, S., & Roberts, J. (2016, September). Overcoming barriers to using telehealth for standardized language assessments. Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups, 1(SIG 18), 41–50.
Swanepoel, D. W., Mngemane, S., Molemong, S., Mkwanazi, H., & Tutshini, S. (2010). Hearing assessment—reliability, accuracy, and efficiency of automated audiometry. Telemedicine and e-Health, 16, 557–563.
Taylor, O., Armfield, N., Dodrill, P., & Smith, A. (2014). A review of the efficacy and effectiveness of using telehealth for paediatric speech and language assessment. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 20, 405–412.
Theodoros, D. G., Constantinescu, G., Russell, T. G., Ward, E. C., Wilson, S. J., & Wootton, R. (2006). Treating the speech disorder in Parkinson’s disease online. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 12, 88–91.
Tindall, L. R., Huebner, R. A., Stemple, J. C., & Kleinert, H. L. (2008). Videophone-delivered voice therapy: A comparative analysis of outcomes to traditional delivery for adults with Parkinson’s disease. Telemedicine and e-Health, 14, 1070–1077.
Towey, M. (2012a). Speech telepractice: Installing a speech therapy upgrade for the 21st century. International Journal of Telerehabilitation, 4, 73–78.
Towey, M. (2012b). Speech therapy telepractice for vocal cord dysfunction (VCD): MaineCare (Medicaid) cost savings. International Journal of Telerehabilitation, 4, 34–36.
U.S. Department of Education. (n.d.). Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act. Retrieved from
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.-a). Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act. Retrieved from
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.-b). Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. Retrieved from
Visagie, A., Swanepoel, D. W., & Eikelboom, R. H. (2015). Accuracy of remote hearing assessment in a rural community. Telemedicine and e-Health, 21, 930–937.
Waite, M., Theodoros, D., Russell, T., & Cahill, L. (2010). Internet-based telehealth assessment of language using the CELF-4. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 41, 445–448.
Wasowski, A., Skarzynski, H., Lorens, A., Obrycka, A., Walkowiak, A., Skarzynski, P., . . . Bruski, L. (2012). The telefitting method used in the national network of teleaudiology: Assessment of quality and cost effectiveness. Journal of Hearing Science, 2, 81–85.
Yates, J. T., & Campbell, K. H. (2005). Audiovestibular education and services via telemedicine technologies. Seminars in Hearing, 26, 35–42.