Languages across the world have unique phonemic systems. For individuals learning English as a second language, it is common for the phonemic system of their first language to influence the production of sounds in English.
Resources listed below are intended to contribute to foundational awareness of potential cultural and linguistic influences. There are variations within cultures, and regional and dialectal variances exist in all languages. Therefore, a single chart/page on cultural and/or linguistic features is not meant to provide a comprehensive overview. Clinical judgment, client/patient/student and caregiver input, and additional research are needed to ensure culturally responsive services.
Speech-language pathologists can use this information to:
Audiologists can use this information to:
ASHA has compiled resources on the phonemic systems for the following languages:
English Phonemic Inventory [PDF]
ASHA's policy documents state that SLPs and audiologists must consider the sound systems of all the languages used by a client in order to provide appropriate assessment and treatment services.
If you have any questions, please contact ASHA's Office of Multicultural Affairs at firstname.lastname@example.org.