Assessment Procedures: Parallel With CPT Codes

Pre-Evaluation Procedures

Pre-evaluation procedures are geared toward assessing basic risk factors associated with stuttering. These procedures are also used for multidisciplinary collaboration and determining previous experiences with speech treatment.

Assessment Component Assessment Objective References

Case history

  • General development, medical history
  • Other speech/language concerns
  • Time since onset, family history of stuttering (persistent or recovered)
  • Previous treatment experiences
  • Information regarding family/personal/cultural perception of fluency (e.g., perceptions of causes, what helps, etc.)
  • Cultural viewpoints on stuttering/cluttering
  • Concern of parent/child

Ambrose, Yairi, & Cox (1997)

Yaruss, LaSalle, & Conture (1998)

Consultation with other professionals (physicians, teachers, etc.)

  • Observations of stuttering/cluttering variability and impact of stuttering/cluttering across various situations
  • Previous evaluations, educational records

Intra-Service Procedures

Intra-service procedures focus on direct assessment of the affective, behavioral, and cognitive domains of stuttering across multiple communication contexts. Assessment takes into consideration the needs of the client and family, in addition to the communication environment of the person who stutters/clutters.

Assessment Component Assessment Objective References

Parent/Child Interview

  • Onset/development of stuttering/cluttering
  • Perception of communication abilities
  • Previous treatment, current outcomes, etc.

Yairi, Ambrose, Paden, & Throneburg (1996)

Yaruss et al. (1998)

Assessment of Speech Fluency

Measurements of speech fluency (frequency type and duration of disfluencies, presence of secondary behaviors)

  • samples from out of clinic settings
  • samples that increase in complexity from single word to narrative samples

Brundage, Bothe, Lengeling, & Evans (2006)

Logan, Byrd, Mazzocchi, & Gillam (2011)

Pellowski & Conture (2002)

Riley (2009)

Yairi et al. (1996)

Yaruss (1997, 1998)

Yaruss et al. (1998)

Assessment of the Reactions of the Speaker and Listeners

Assessment of negative (or positive) affective, behavioral, and cognitive reactions to stuttering/cluttering

Blood, Blood, Maloney, Meyer, & Qualls (2007)

Blood, Boyle, Blood, & Nalesnik (2010)

Boey et al. (2009)

Davis, Howell, & Cooke (2002)

Mulcahy, Hennessey, Beilby, & Byrnes (2008)

Vanryckeghem, Brutten, & Hernandez (2005)

Yaruss & Quesal (2010)

Assessment of Impact of Stuttering

Assessment of functional communication abilities (e.g., difficulty experienced when communicating in daily situations); assessment of impact of stuttering on quality of life and satisfaction with communication

Beilby, Byrnes, & Yaruss (2012)

Chun, Mendes, Yaruss, & Quesal (2010)

Yaruss (2010)

Yaruss, Coleman, & Quesal (2012)

Yaruss & Quesal (2006, 2010)

Assessment of Other Communication Dimensions

Assessment of speech sound production, receptive/expressive language development (including conversation, story telling, and retelling), voice, hearing, oral-motor function/structure

Blood, Ridenour, Qualls, & Hammer (2002)

Paden & Yairi (1996)

Yairi et al. (1996)

Yaruss et al. (1998)

Recommendations/Treatment Preparation

  • Documentation (test results)
  • Treatment plan development, including long-/short-term goals
  • Written report

Post-Service Procedures

Post-service procedures focus on providing information on stuttering to the client, family, and others in the child's communication environment.

Consultation with/referral to other professionals as needed

Provision of ongoing education about stuttering/cluttering to family, school personnel, and other significant people in the child's environment


Ambrose, N., Yairi, E., & Cox, N. (1997). The genetic basis of persistence and recovery in stuttering. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 40, 567-580.

Beilby, J. M., Byrnes, M. L., & Yaruss, J. S. (2012). The impact of a stuttering disorder on Western Australian children and adolescents. Perspectives on Fluency and Fluency Disorders, 22, 51-62.

Blood, G. W., Blood, I. M., Maloney, K., Meyer, C., & Qualls, C. D. (2007). Anxiety levels in adolescents who stutter. Journal of Communication Disorders, 40, 452-469.

Blood, G. W., Boyle, M. P., Blood, I. M., & Nalesnik G. R. (2010). Bullying in children who stutter: Speech-language pathologists' perceptions and intervention strategies. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 35, 92-109.

Blood, G. W., Ridenour, V. J., Qualls, C. D., & Hammer, C. S. (2002). Co-occurring disorders in children who stutter. Journal of Communication Disorders, 36, 427-448.

Boey, R. A., Van de Heyning, P. H., Wuyts, F. L., Heylen, L., Stoop, R., & De Bodt, M. S. (2009). Awareness and reactions of young stuttering children aged 2-7 years old towards their speech disfluency. Journal of Communication Disorders, 42, 334-346.

Brundage, S. B., Bothe, A. K., Lengeling, A. N., & Evans, J. J. (2006). Comparing judgments of stuttering made by students, clinicians, and highly experienced judges. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 31, 271-283.

Chun, R. Y. S., Mendes, C. D., Yaruss, J. S., & Quesal, R. W. (2010). The impact of stuttering on quality of life of children and adolescents. Pró-Fono Revista de Atualização Científica, 22(4), 567-570.

Davis, S., Howell, P., & Cooke, F. (2002). Sociodynamic relationships between children who stutter and their non-stuttering classmates. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43, 939-947.

Logan, K. J., Byrd, C. T., Mazzocchi, E. M., & Gillam, R. B. (2011). Speaking rate characteristics of elementary-school-aged children who do and do not stutter. Journal of Communication Disorders, 44(1), 130-147.

Mulcahy, K., Hennessey, N., Beilby, J., Byrnes, M. (2008). Social anxiety and the severity and typography of stuttering in adolescents. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 33, 306-319.

Paden, E., & Yairi, E. (1996). Phonological characteristics of children whose stuttering persisted or recovered. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 39, 981-990.

Pellowski, M. W., & Conture, E. G. (2002). Characteristics of speech disfluencies and stuttering behaviors in 3- and 4-year-old children. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 45, 20-34.

Riley, G. (2009). Stuttering Severity Instrument for Children and Adults. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

Vanryckeghem, M., Brutten, G. J., & Hernandez, L. M. (2005). A comparative investigation of the speech-associated attitude of preschool and kindergarten children who do and do not stutter. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 30(4), 307-318.

Yairi, E., Ambrose, N., Paden, E., & Throneburg, R. (1996). Predictive factors of persistence and recovery: Pathways of childhood stuttering. Journal of Communication Disorders, 29(1), 51-77.

Yaruss, J.S. (1997). Clinical measurement of stuttering behaviors. Contemporary Issues in Communication Science and Disorders, 24, 33-44.

Yaruss, J. S. (1998). Real-time analysis of speech fluency procedures and reliability training. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 7(2), 25-37.

Yaruss, J. S. (2010). Assessing quality of life in stuttering treatment outcomes research. Journal of Fluency Disorders (Special issue: The Influence of Fluency Disorders on Quality of Life), 35, 190-202.

Yaruss, J. S., Coleman, C. E., & Quesal, R. W. (2012). Stuttering in school-age children: A comprehensive approach to treatment [Letter to the editor]. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 43, 536-548.

Yaruss, J. S., LaSalle, L. R., & Conture, E. G. (1998). Evaluating stuttering in young children: Diagnostic data. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 7(4), 62-76.

Yaruss, J. S., & Quesal, R. W. (2006). Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering (OASES): Documenting multiple outcomes in stuttering treatment. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 31, 90-115.

Yaruss, J. S., & Quesal, R. W. (2010). Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering. Bloomington, MN: Pearson Assessments.

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