Possible Causes of Hypernasality and/or Nasal Emission

Figure Adapted With Permission From Trost-Cardamone (1989), Peterson-Falzone et al. (2016), and Vallino et al. (2018)*


*From Cleft Palate Speech and Resonance: An Audio and Video Resource (Figure 1, p. 9) by Vallino, L. D., Ruscello, D. M., & Zajac, D. J. Copyright © 2019 Plural Publishing, Inc. All rights reserved. Used with permission.

Note. ALS = amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; MG = myasthenia gravis.

Peterson-Falzone, S. J., Trost-Cardamone, J. E., Karnell, M. P., & Hardin-Jones, M. A. (2016). The clinician’s guide to treating cleft palate speech (2nd ed.). Mosby.

Trost-Cardamone, J. E. (1989). Coming to terms with VPI: A response to Loney and Bloem. Cleft Palate Journal, 26(1), 68–70.

Vallino, L. D., Ruscello, D. M., & Zajac, D. J. (2018). Cleft palate speech and resonance: An audio and video resource (2nd ed.). Plural.

ASHA Corporate Partners