||fricative and/or affricate is replaced with a stop sound
pun for fun; tee for see
doo for zoo; berry for very
chop for shop; top for chop; dump for jump; dat for that
/f, s/ — 3
/z, v/ — 4
sh, ch, j, th — 5
*These are common phonological processes (patterns). The list is not exhaustive.
**Individual differences can be significant.
Bauman-Waengler, J. A. (2012). Articulatory and phonological impairments. New York, NY: Pearson Higher Education.
Bernthal, J., Bankson, N. W., & Flipsen, P., Jr. (2013). Articulation and phonological disorders. New York, NY: Pearson Higher Education.
References for Likely Age of Elimination
Peña-Brooks, A., & Hegde, M. N. (2015). Assessment and Treatment of Speech Sound Disorders in Children: A Dual-Level Text. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.
Shipley, K. G., & McAfee, J. G. (2016). Assessment in speech-language pathology: A resource manual. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.