American Speech-Language-Hearing Association
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Communicating Better With Older People

[en Español]

Communicating with older people often requires extra time and patience because of physical, psychological, and social changes of normal aging.

Even more effort is needed in nursing homes where 60% to 90% of residents may actually have communication disabilities.

Speech-language pathologists Martin Shulman and Ellen Mandel offer these tips for family members and caregivers to make communicating with older people easier:

  • Reduce background noises that may be distracting (e.g., turn off the radio or TV, close the door, or move to a quieter place)
  • Begin the conversation with casual topics (e.g., the weather or what the person had for lunch). Avoid crucial messages at the beginning.
  • Talk about familiar subjects such as family members and special interests of the person
  • Stick to a topic. Avoid quick shifts from topic to topic.
  • Keep sentences and questions short.
  • Give older persons a moment to reminisce. Their memories are important to them.
  • Allow extra time for responding. Don't hurry them.
  • Give the older person choices to ease decision making. (e.g., "Do you want tea or coffee?" rather than "What do you want to drink?")
  • Be an active listener. Look for hints from eye gaze and gestures. Take a guess (e.g., "Are you talking about the TV news? Yes? Tell me more. I didn't see it.")

After your visit, tell others who visit (relatives, physicians, nurses, aides, etc.) what you've learned to improve communicating with the older person.

If you have concerns about a loved one's ability to communicate, visit ASHA's Find a Professional for help.

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