American Speech-Language-Hearing Association

Epidemiology Across Cultures: Latino/Hispanic Populations

Demographics | Health Statistics | Educational Statistics | Resources

Demographics

People of Spanish/Hispanic/Latino origin could identify as Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, or other Spanish/Hispanic/Latino. The term "Latino" appeared on the census form for the first time in 2000. People who marked "other Spanish/Hispanic/Latino" had additional space to write Hispanic origins, such as Salvadoran or Dominican. The 2006–2008 American Community Survey estimates that the United States population was 301.2 million. Of the total, 45.4 million, or 15.1 percent, reported that they are Hispanic or Latino of any race. Mexicans represented 29.3 million, Puerto Ricans 4.1 million, Cubans 1.6 million, Dominicans 1.2 million, Central Americans 3.6 million, South Americans 2.5 million and other Hispanics 3 million. [1]

Health Statistics

Incidence and Prevalence of Diseases

AIDS/HIV, number of 42,655 newly reported cases in 2007 [2]

6,921

Coronary Heart Disease (Hispanic/Latinos) [3]

5.7%

Diabetes Mellitus (Hispanic/Latinos) [3]

11.0%

Sickle Cell Anemia [4] 1 out of every 36,000 births

Stroke (Hispanic/Latinos) [3]

2.6%

 

 

Female

Male

Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)(Mexican Americans) [3]

34.4%

28.5%

Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) (Mexican Americans) [3]

6.6%

5.3%

Diabetes Mellitus (Mexican Americans) [3]

13.1%

11.8%

Stroke (Mexican Americans) [3]

3.1%

2.8%

Risk Factors

 

 

Hispanic/Latino

Hypertension [3]

21.0%

Obesity (BMI 30+) [3]

31.3%

Total cholesterol 240 mg/dL+ [3]

29.9%

 

Female

Male

Hypertension (Mexican Americans) [3]

31.6%

25.9%

Obesity (BMI 30+) (Mexican Americans) [3]

41.8%

29.1%

Total cholesterol 240 mg/dL+ (Mexican Americans) [3]

14.3%

16.8%

 

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Educational Statistics

According to the National Center for Educational Statistics, approximately 20.5% of students enrolled in elementary and secondary schools in the Fall of 2006 were Hispanic. [5]

Special Education Identification (Fall 2004) [6]

Percentage of students ages 6 through 21 receiving special education services for given disability category

 

Hispanic

Specific Learning Disabilities

4.74

Speech or Language Impairment

1.58

Mental Retardation

0.59

Emotional Disturbance

0.43

Multiple Disabilities

0.14

Hearing Impairment

0.13

Orthopedic Impairment

0.10

Other Health Impairment

0.40

Visual Impairment

0.04

Autism

0.15

Deaf-Blindness

0.00

Traumatic Brain Injury

0.02

Resources

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[1] U.S. Census Bureau. (2008) 2006–2008 American community survey. Retrieved January 5, 2010 from http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DTTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&-ds_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G00_&-mt_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G2000_B03001.

[2] Center for Disease Control and Population. (2009). "Fact Sheet: HIV/AIDS among Hispanic/Latinos." Retrieved January 5, 2010 from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/hispanics/index.htm.

[3] American Heart Association. (2009). Heart disease and stroke statistics#8212;2010 update. Dallas: American Heart Association

[4] National Heart Blood and Lung Institute. (n.d.). Who is at risk for sickle cell anemia?Retrieved January 5, 2010, from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/Sca/SCA_WhoIsAtRisk.html.

[5] Digest of Education Statistics. (2008). "Percentage distribution of enrollment in public elementary and secondary school, by race/ethnicity and state: Fall 1996 and Fall 2006." Retrieved January 5, 2010 from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d08/tables/dt08_041.asp.

[6] U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, Office of Special Education Programs. (2009). 28th Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Act, 2006, vol. 1, Washington DC.

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