CE Courses / Journal (Online)

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New!
Patient-Centered Care for Older Adults
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.4
4.0
The articles in this journal self-study provide clinically applicable evidence and critiques of current practices for working with older adults, with the goal of encouraging clinicians to go beyond treating impairments in isolation and instead to use patient-centered practices to increase life participation and quality of life. Two of the articles closely examine situations in long-term care facilities: (1) differing perceptions of food texture modification by professionals and staff and (2) improving communication opportunities for residents with aphasia in traditional long-term care facilities. The second two articles analyze interventions for individuals with cognitive impairment, addressing (1) improving behavioral symptoms by treating hearing loss and (2) providing direct communication intervention for individuals with moderate to severe dementia.
Member:
$50.00 $40.00
Nonmember:
$65.00 $52.00
New!
Select Papers From the 47th Clinical Aphasiology Conference
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.95
9.5
This journal self-study includes select papers that were presented at the 2017 Clinical Aphasiology Conference in Snowbird, Utah. The articles reflect the wide array of topics presented on aphasia treatment, tools, and outcomes. Also included is an article that ties ideas from the conference keynote to research in communication disorders. Clinicians can expand their knowledge by learning about the current state of aphasia research.
Member:
$93.00 $74.40
Nonmember:
$121.00 $96.80
New!
2017 Audiology Research Highlights
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.3
3.0
This self-study features highly read and cited audiology research articles published in 2017 in ASHA’s scholarly journals. Topics reflect the diversity of the field and include: (1) a discussion of the economic impact of hearing loss in the U.S., (2) ways to improve museum accessibility for people with hearing loss, (3) how improvements in early detection of hearing loss has impacted children’s literacy outcomes, and (4) the impact of an audiologist’s language on hearing aid uptake.
Member:
$40.00 $32.00
Nonmember:
$52.00 $41.60
New!
Innovations in Audiology
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.45
4.5
This self-study includes work presented at the Third International Meeting on Internet and Audiology. The articles discuss innovations in audiology, with a focus on teleaudiology and eHealth services. Readers will learn about Internet programs and smartphone applications that assist with the management of hearing and hearing-related issues, as well as how data collected through these means may influence public policy.
Member:
$55.00 $44.00
Nonmember:
$72.00 $57.60
Advances in Autism Research
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.5
5.0
This self-study is composed of research presented at the 2017 ASHA Convention Research Symposium, “Advances in Autism Research: From Learning Mechanisms to Novel Interventions.” These journal articles – published as part of a 2018 research forum in the Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research – explore the clinical implications of current research on SLPs’ work with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Specific topics include ways to personalize intervention, the interaction between language and executive functioning, how a child’s ability to interact differently with their environment impacts communication, and factors that may influence the development of shape bias, which is an important factor in vocabulary development.
Member:
$59.00 $47.20
Nonmember:
$77.00 $61.60
Stuttering: Addressing Child and Parent Attitudes and Behaviors
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.55
5.5
Stuttering can have a negative effect on a child’s self-esteem and self-confidence. It also affects parents, who may not understand how to support their child. This journal self-study contains a selection of articles from the October 2018 American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology special issue based on sessions and posters from the 11th Oxford Dysfluency Conference. The conference, held every 3 years, seeks to integrate research and clinical practice in fluency disorders. Clinicians will be able to use the specific techniques and activities described in these articles to help parents and children approach stuttering differently and improve outcomes.
Member:
$63.00 $50.40
Nonmember:
$82.00 $65.60
Incorporating Video Games in SLP Practice
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.4
4.0
The articles in this journal self-study highlight potential benefits of video games in the clinic and classroom. The articles demonstrate how gaming principles and applied video game design can result in measurable behavioral changes across populations that SLPs serve. The first article describes principles of video games that can enhance efficiency and motivation in intervention and then illustrates these principles in a case study. The second article describes the social-emotional benefits of video games as a leisure activity according to individuals with autism spectrum disorder. The final three demonstrate practical applications of video games for motor learning in individuals with velopharyngeal dysfunction and hypokinetic dysarthria as well as for classroom-based learning.
Member:
$50.00 $40.00
Nonmember:
$65.00 $52.00
Efficacy and Innovations in Telepractice
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.55
5.5
Technology has irrefutably expanded the availability of speech and language services to populations that are more difficult to serve due to mobility challenges and/or remote locations. The articles in this journal self-study illustrate how telepractice – including mixed-service delivery models that incorporate both clinic and telepractice components –can enhance telehabilitation and telerehabilitation practices across a range of communication disorders.
Member:
$63.00 $50.40
Nonmember:
$82.00 $65.60
Identifying, Assessing, and Treating Dyslexia: What SLPs Need to Know
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.65
6.5
As a result of recent laws and regulations, more SLPs in schools are treating children with dyslexia. The journal articles in this self-study – from an October 2018 Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools clinical forum on dyslexia – provide “state-of-the-science” information to help SLPs understand dyslexia in relation to other speech and language disorders, as well as ways to identify, assess, and treat this disorder. Clinicians will find practical tips that they can immediately incorporate into practice.
Member:
$71.00 $56.80
Nonmember:
$92.00 $73.60
Emotional Competence and Well-Being in Kids With Speech and Language Disorders
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.55
5.5
Communication disorders in children may affect social interactions and lead to negative emotional and behavioral outcomes. This journal self-study explores well-being, resilience, and emotional competence in school-age children. The articles discuss ways to identify risk factors to emotional well-being (including victimization and bullying), assess emotional competence, and support emotional expression in children who use AAC. The final article explores counseling and the role the SLP plays in addressing emotional issues as a part of intervention.
Member:
$63.00 $50.40
Nonmember:
$82.00 $65.60
Improving Hearing Aid Outcomes Through Patient Self-Efficacy
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.35
3.5
Despite best practices, many clients eventually discontinue using their hearing aids. Though a number of reasons may explain this behavior, declining patient satisfaction is perhaps one of the most significant. The articles in this journal self-study explore ways to improve hearing aid outcomes by targeting patient satisfaction through increased self-efficacy. The first article establishes an overall framework for client satisfaction by identifying essential concepts underlying hearing aid management. The second article describes a new area of research regarding self-fitting, which promotes self-efficacy by involving clients in adjusting their own hearing aids from day 1. The third article examines psychosocial benefits and improved satisfaction resulting from hearing aid trials. The final article empirically tests the connection between self-efficacy of specific management skills and hearing aid satisfaction.
Member:
$45.00 $36.00
Nonmember:
$59.00 $47.20
Improving Clinical Training for Audiologists and Speech-Language Pathologists
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.5
5.0
Academic programs in audiology and speech-language pathology provide education and training to students preparing for challenging and ever-expanding professions. Finding innovative ways to ensure appropriate training is a constant struggle. In addition, students report high levels of stress as they navigate school demands. This journal self-study explores how programs are using simulation, peer-assisted learning, and mindfulness practice to address these concerns. While focused on academic training, these articles will also benefit clinical supervisors as well as practicing clinicians looking to find new training methods for themselves and colleagues.
Member:
$59.00 $47.20
Nonmember:
$77.00 $61.60
Capitalizing on Children’s Learning Patterns for Fast, Effective Language Intervention
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.7
7.0
Taking into account children’s learning processes is important when SLPs design interventions aimed at teaching new skills or expanding abilities. This journal self-study – based on a special issue of Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools – focuses on the type of learning that happens implicitly and quickly, without effort or even the knowledge that we are learning. This type of learning – known as statistical learning – refers to the way that children recognize patterns in the world around them. As language is full of patterns, this type of learning plays a large role in how children learn sound production, words, grammatical structures, and more. The articles in this selfstudy explore how SLPs can capitalize on implicit learning processes during intervention to help learning happen faster.
Member:
$75.00 $60.00
Nonmember:
$98.00 $78.40
Working Memory in School-Age Children
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.95
9.5
This journal self study explores the nature of working memory and its relationship to language and learning. The articles – from a recently published Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools clinical forum – discuss working memory and how it relates to language development; executive functions and working memory as they relate to bilingualism, math, and decoding; and practical assessment and treatment strategies related to working memory and language. Clinicians can use this research to improve their assessment and intervention processes to help students with memory deficits succeed.
Member:
$93.00 $74.40
Nonmember:
$120.00 $96.00
Service Provision for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.35
3.5
This journal self-study explores issues related to service provision for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) by taking learners through the typical intervention process. The course starts with a review of speech sound assessments for children with ASD, an area that is not as commonly addressed in this population as other areas of communication. It then moves to how documentation of assessment results can be improved by adopting a strengths-based approach. A discussion of how SLPs in the U.S. and Taiwan use evidence-based interventions for ASD follows. And the course concludes with a discussion of an innovative way to approach social skills and friendships for children with ASD. Each article includes specific recommendations that clinicians can incorporate immediately into practice to improve all aspects of service provision for children with ASD.
Member:
$45.00 $36.00
Nonmember:
$59.00 $47.20
Special Considerations for Children With Feeding and Swallowing Disorders
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.3
3.0
Feeding and swallowing problems in children take many forms and are often intertwined with other aspects of a child’s development. This journal self-study explores some of these interactions, including the relationship between feeding and swallowing disorders and language impairment, as well as connections between hearing and feeding/ swallowing. The self-study also includes information on how mealtime duration relates to severity of feeding and swallowing problems in children with cerebral palsy, as well as how a family-centered intervention can address mealtime behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder. Clinicians will be able to immediately apply the information in these articles to improve management of pediatric feeding and swallowing disorders.
Member:
$40.00 $32.00
Nonmember:
$52.00 $41.60
Identifying Developmental Language Disorder in Linguistically Diverse Schools
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.65
6.5
Although clinicians have long understood the risks of misidentifying an English learner or nonmainstream dialect speaker with language impairment, research to date has lacked a more nuanced view of assessment within diverse populations. Specifically, practitioners need the knowledge and tools to diagnose “disorder within difference,” a concept that is introduced and then exemplified in this journal self-study course, based on a Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools clinical forum. The authors of the articles examine a variety of assessment and screening tools used with children of varying linguistic backgrounds, including speakers of rural southern dialects, speakers of African American English, and Spanish-English bilingual children.
Member:
$71.00 $56.80
Nonmember:
$92.00 $73.60
Executive Function Skills in Preschool and School-Age Children
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.35
3.5
While the definition of executive function (EF) varies in the literature, it includes, at its core, the skills people use to plan, organize, problem-solve, and set and achieve goals in their daily lives. EF skills start developing in early childhood, and children with EF dysfunction experience social and academic difficulties. This journal self-study explores issues related to the development of EF skills as well as principles and practical strategies for EF assessment and intervention in preschool and school-age children. It also presents an argument for the role of EF in social communication and discusses ways that SLPs can address these skills in treatment. SLPs working with children with EF deficits can use this information to improve assessment techniques and plan intervention strategies to better meet the needs of these children.
Member:
$45.00 $36.00
Nonmember:
$59.00 $47.20
Evaluating Product Characteristics for Infant Feeding and Non-Nutritive Sucking
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.15
1.5
Clinical decisions regarding infant feeding not only affect nutritional status but also respiratory function in medically fragile populations. The articles in this journal self-study examine products designed to promote safe infant feeding and sucking patterns. Importantly, they compare and contrast products so that clinicians are equipped to make informed decisions that do not rely on marketing claims. The first two articles focus on bottle nipple characteristics that promote safe milk ingestion and respiratory effects and the third examines a range of pacifiers to determine which characteristics promote the most productive non-nutritive sucking pattern.
Member:
$25.00 $20.00
Nonmember:
$33.00 $26.40
Exploring Curriculum-Based Language Assessment and Interventions
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.55
5.5
Spoken and written language skills underlie all aspects of the school curriculum and are essential for school success. This journal self-study, which includes articles from a Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools clinical forum, addresses ways SLPs can assess and treat language disorders within the context of the school curriculum. The goal of the articles is, as noted in the introductory article, “to establish the school-based SLP as the language and literacy expert for curriculum-based interventions and assessment” (Bourque Meaux, 2018, p.138). The authors in the clinical forum discuss alternate service delivery options and tools for school-based SLPs to use and also explore how SLPs can mentor and educate other school professionals to better support language skills within the school curriculum.
Member:
$63.00 $50.40
Nonmember:
$82.00 $65.60
Select Papers From the 46th Clinical Aphasiology Conference
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
1.35
13.5
This journal self-study – a collection of selected papers from the 46th Clinical Aphasiology Conference (CAC) – addresses important clinical research questions related to the assessment and treatment of communication impairments associated with aphasia, apraxia of speech, traumatic brain injury, epilepsy, and primary progressive aphasia.
Member:
$115.00 $92.00
Nonmember:
$150.00 $120.00
Effects of Lingual Strengthening on Swallowing
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.25
2.5
Research into programmed isometric lingual exercise in order to improve swallow function has yielded promising results. This journal self-study examines evidence related to this relatively new therapeutic approach. The first article in this self-study offers a review of the recent literature on isometric lingual tasks across a variety of populations and includes clinical implications based on the findings. The second and third articles are normative studies about adults without diagnosed dysphagia. One explores how tongue strengthening affects mealtime functioning in older, long-term care residents, while the other examines relationships between performance variability, isometric strength, swallowing pressure, age, and gender.
Member:
$35.00 $28.00
Nonmember:
$46.00 $36.80
The Role of Risk Factors in Assessment for Communication Disorders
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.5
5.0
Clinicians are well-trained in collecting and reporting thorough family and medical case histories of their clients. This information, however, is most often used as a backdrop for direct assessment measures, which are the actual standards for determining eligibility for services. In recent years, the evidence base concerning risk factors for communication disorders has steadily increased. The four articles in this self-study not only demonstrate the significant value of case history information, but suggest that diagnostic standards in the future will weigh risk factors more heavily along with assessment scores.
Member:
$59.00 $47.20
Nonmember:
$77.00 $61.60
Advancements in Pediatric Single-Word Speech Assessment
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.4
4.0
As caseloads grow and diversify, clinicians may question whether they are equipped with the necessary tools to address changing demands when it comes to working with children with speech sound disorders. The single-word naming task is a basic component of pediatric speech production assessment, but is there an adequate evidence base behind the use of single-word naming tools for all populations served? Are the items found in these assessments necessary and sufficient to diagnose speech sound disorders? The four articles in this journal self-study address such questions. The first article uses item response theory to examine which single-word items in a standardized assessment are most clinically informative. The second article is a systematic review of current speech sound production practices for children with autism spectrum disorder and ends with recommendations for assessment with this population. The third article examines whether assessments that are normed on monolingual kindergarteners are diagnostically sensitive for bilingual children with suspected speech sound disorders. Lastly, the fourth article reviews the relatively new literature on polysyllable assessment and provides detailed procedures for implementation.
Member:
$50.00 $40.00
Nonmember:
$65.00 $52.00
Best Seller
Assessing and Treating Grammatical Deficits in Children and Young Adults
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.55
5.5
English grammar develops in a fairly predictable sequence, and errors are common as children learn grammar rules. Children with language impairments often demonstrate continued difficulty with grammatical morphemes. This journal self-study explores issues related to grammar development, as well as factors to consider when assessing and treating grammar deficits. Clinicians can use this information to improve intervention and optimize grammar development in children with language disorders.
Member:
$63.00 $50.40
Nonmember:
$82.00 $65.60
Remediating Rhotic Distortions: Moving Beyond Traditional Approaches
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.35
3.5
School-based clinicians generally agree that /r/ is one of the most challenging speech sounds to remediate. Despite research showing how persistent rhotic distortions can affect students’ social, academic, and even future employment prospects, some children are discharged from services because traditional approaches simply fail to work. This journal self-study offers a response to the frustration often experienced by clinicians and clients struggling with persistent errors by showcasing some exciting new methods in /r/ intervention. Three articles describe promising results of different types of biofeedback-visual-acoustic, ultrasound, and electropalatographic interventions that are gradually becoming more accessible to clinicians. These articles also explore how biofeedback methods and other intervention modifications can adapt the principles of motor learning to increase efficacy of articulation intervention. The fourth article is an exploration of self-entrainment theory to promote speech sound change through the use of hand gestures.
Member:
$45.00 $36.00
Nonmember:
$59.00 $47.20
Best Practice for Developmental Stuttering: Balancing Evidence and Expertise
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.4
4.0
Stuttering is a complex disorder that can lead to social, emotional, and academic difficulties. Clinicians treating children who stutter must consider many factors during assessment and intervention. The articles in this clinical forum describe approaches to evidence-based practice (EBP) that balance available research with clinical expertise, while also considering the needs and desires of the patient and family. Four fluency experts use case studies to describe how they make decisions about stuttering management for a young child as well as an adolescent. Clinicians can use this information to guide how they incorporate the three components of EBP – research evidence, clinical expertise, and client preferences – into their own practice with children who stutter.
Member:
$50.00 $40.00
Nonmember:
$65.00 $52.00
Beyond Memory: Special Issues in Dementia
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.35
3.5
Clinicians who work with individuals with dementia are well aware of the need to address memory and other cognitive issues. However, there are other potential problems that may co-occur with dementia or happen as a result of the disease progression. This journal self-study explores some of these issues, including ways to improve the use of compensatory swallowing strategies, the impact of hearing amplification on cognitive performance, how motor speech may be affected by dementia and other progressive disorders, and how auditory processing may be affected by cognitive impairment. Clinicians can use this information to improve how they manage patients with dementia.
Member:
$45.00 $36.00
Nonmember:
$59.00 $47.20
Improving Speech in People With Parkinson’s Disease
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.45
4.5
People with Parkinson’s disease (PD) often present with dysarthria and reduced intelligibility. Understanding the nature of these speech deficits and how they affect the individual will improve treatment and speech outcomes. This journal self-study explores how aspects of both the individual (such as native language and experiences with speaking) and treatment conditions (such as task or cue types) affect speech production and intelligibility for people with PD. SLPs can use this information to improve intervention for people with PD and individual perceptions of speech production.
Member:
$55.00 $44.00
Nonmember:
$72.00 $57.60
Addressing the Social Needs of People With Communication Disorders
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.45
4.5
A communication disorder can have a profound impact on many aspects of a person’s life, including school, work, leisure, and social relationships. Sudden changes, such as those that occur after stroke or other illness, as well as more gradual difficulties, such as those associated with age-related hearing loss, can negatively affect interactions with other people and engagement in daily activities. This journal self-study explores how social networks and feelings of isolation or loneliness may change when a person experiences communication difficulties. It also looks at how well SLPs and audiologists recognize and address the social and emotional needs of their patients during treatment. Clinicians working with older adults with speech, language, and hearing disorders will come away with a better understanding of the impact of social and familial support on patient success and how to better address these needs when planning treatment.
Member:
$55.00 $44.00
Nonmember:
$72.00 $57.60
Special Issues in Autism
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.4
4.0
Clinicians who work with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are aware of the challenges presented by the varied abilities and behaviors of this group. This journal self-study focuses on special populations of children with ASD, including those who are deaf, those who use AAC, and bilingual children. A final article discusses how intervention can be extended beyond improving social skills to working toward establishing and maintaining actual friendships. SLPs working with children with ASD can use information from these articles to improve clinical practice when working with children with these particular special situations.
Member:
$50.00 $40.00
Nonmember:
$65.00 $52.00
Evidence-Based Assessment and Intervention for Cleft Lip and Palate
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.35
3.5
The articles included in this journal self-study include evidence-based assessment and intervention practices for children with cleft lip and/or palate, a specialized population with which many SLPs have limited experience. The first article describes a clinical measure for quantifying nasal air emission using a nasal accelerometer. The second article illustrates the developmental timeline of typical velopharyngeal function in speech production and then compares it to what is seen in toddlers with repaired cleft. The third article offers treatment efficacy data for a naturalistic intervention with phonological emphasis for toddlers with cleft lip and/or palate. The final article examines a number of factors that can influence language development in internationally adopted children with cleft lip and/or palate.
Member:
$45.00 $36.00
Nonmember:
$59.00 $47.20
Improving Reading and Writing Outcomes in Young Children
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.55
5.5
Literacy skills begin to develop in early childhood, and addressing deficits in reading and writing skills early may prevent later problems in school. This journal self-study explores special situations that may affect literacy skills, including the presence of speech sound disorders, hearing impairment, and cultural and/or socioeconomic differences. It also includes articles that discuss intervention techniques to improve phonological awareness, an important emergent literacy skill. Clinicians can use this information to improve reading and writing assessment and treatment techniques for preschool and early elementary school children.
Member:
$63.00 $50.40
Nonmember:
$82.00 $65.60
Social and Vocational Impacts of Voice Disorders
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.45
4.5
This journal self-study explores a variety of issues related to adult vocal health and how voice disorders affect social and work-related interactions. Articles examine prevalence rates of voice disorders among college students; self-reports of vocal use; issues that school workers confront that may affect vocal health; the impact of common workplace issues, such as heating and air conditioning levels, on vocal functioning; and how voice disorders may affect listener processing and comprehension.
Member:
$55.00 $44.00
Nonmember:
$72.00 $57.60
Speech Sound Disorders in Preschool and School-Age Children
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.6
6.0
Children with speech sound disorders make up a large part of the caseload for many SLPs who work with preschool and school-age children. Speech sound disorders not only affect a child’s ability to communicate at a young age but also may lead to later speech and literacy difficulties. This journal self-study explores issues related to managing speech sound disorders, including assessment and treatment options. It also includes articles that identify predictors of future speech and literacy problems. Clinicians can use this information to help identify appropriate assessment tools and potential treatment options, as well as counsel parents and teachers of children who may be at risk for continuing speech and academic difficulties.
Member:
$67.00 $53.60
Nonmember:
$87.00 $69.60
Hearing and Cognition in Older Adults
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.35
3.5
As people age, they often experience a variety of health-related issues, including hearing loss and memory difficulties. This journal self-study explores the relationship between hearing loss and cognitive functioning and considers what is known about age-related cognitive decline and how it may be influenced by hearing loss and the use of amplification. As the primary provider of hearing-related services for older adults, audiologists are in a position to address cognitive issues and assist patients and families. This journal course discusses strategies on how to do so effectively.
Member:
$45.00 $36.00
Nonmember:
$59.00 $47.20
Assessment and Intervention for Speakers of Nonmainstream English Dialects
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.45
4.5
Distinguishing between language disorder and language difference can be a challenge when a child speaks a nonmainstream English dialect. This journal self-study presents research findings that clinicians can implement with this population in their practice. Two of the articles examine modifications to scoring procedures to correct for dialect in assessments for language impairment. The third article explores the validity of a dialect-sensitive assessment tool. The final article examines the effects of a curriculum designed to teach dialectal differences. In total, the assessment and intervention strategies and tools discussed in these articles will allow SLPs to deliver more effective services and promote academic success for children who speak nonmainstream English dialects.
Member:
$55.00 $44.00
Nonmember:
$72.00 $57.60
Services for Individuals With Severe Disabilities: A Collaborative Approach
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.55
5.5
Individuals with severe disabilities require services from many different providers to address their wide and varied needs. This journal self-study discusses the principles of interprofessional collaborative practice and why this approach may be the most appropriate way to provide services to those with severe disabilities. The articles discuss how interprofessional collaborative practice can improve outcomes for children with severe disabilities and describe specific examples of this type of practice, including suggestions about how SLPs can work with parents and other professionals to improve services for this challenging population. The articles utilize case studies to help illustrate key concepts.
Member:
$63.00 $50.40
Nonmember:
$82.00 $65.60
Preschool Language Disorders: Identification and Outcomes Reporting
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.5
5.0
A child’s early language development can be used to predict later language and literacy skills, as well as school readiness and academic success. It has long been a challenge to distinguish children who are “late talkers” and will eventually develop age-appropriate language skills from those who might have a language delay that requires intervention. This journal self-study primarily examines issues related to assessing language disorders in preschoolers, in an attempt to identify those children who may be at risk for language and learning difficulties and would benefit from support. Specifically, articles examine risk factors for being a late talker, alternative methods of screening for language impairment, and the usefulness of parent and teacher reports when screening bilingual children. One final article discusses collecting and reporting outcomes for preschool children with speech and language disorders. Clinicians can use this information to improve their approach to language screening and outcomes reporting for preschoolers on their caseload.
Member:
$59.00 $47.20
Nonmember:
$77.00 $61.60
Improving Efficiency of Intervention for Children With Language Challenges
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.5
5.0
A significant proportion of treatment research aims to determine whether particular interventions are effective in addressing children’s language deficits, but just as important are ways to increase efficiency of these interventions in practice. The articles in this journal self-study examine a range of variables that promote efficiency. The first article manipulates two parameters of dosage—rate and distribution of teaching episodes—and compares the effects on vocabulary learning in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder. The second article examines the dosage parameter of schedule (massed or distributed) on an intervention targeting grammatical morphemes in preschoolers with specific language impairment (SLI). The third article examines adequate intensity for vocabulary acquisition for children with SLI during interactive book reading. A final article demonstrates how the addition of one training component in early educator professional development leads to greater efficiency in children’s responses to the same intervention presented in the third article.
Member:
$59.00 $47.20
Nonmember:
$77.00 $61.60
Reading Comprehension Is Not a Single Ability
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.3
3.0
In this journal self-study, which includes articles from a Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools clinical forum, authors address the problem of declining reading comprehension in the United States. The lead article argues that reading comprehension is complex and multidimensional, varying based on reader ability, text, and task. The remaining articles focus on the implications of this view, including ideas related to assessment, intervention, and the critical role SLPs play in evaluating and addressing reading comprehension difficulties.
Member:
$40.00 $32.00
Nonmember:
$52.00 $41.60
Discriminating Childhood Apraxia of Speech From Speech Delay
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.55
5.5
Since the first description of a childhood speech disorder similar in presentation to adult onset apraxia of speech, much research has gone into identifying characteristics to help make diagnosis more accurate and reduce the known over-identification of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). However, to date, there has been no conclusive diagnostic marker identified to differentiate CAS from other speech delays. The goal of the articles in this self-study is “to develop and validate a diagnostic marker that discriminates early and persistent CAS from speech delay.” The articles introduce the pause marker (PM) and discuss support for the PM as well as possible clinical and research uses with the development of an assessment tool, the Pause Marker Index (PMI). While the PMI is not yet ready for clinical application, the articles provide clinicians with information about the PM that they can begin to incorporate into assessment and treatment to better serve their clients.
Member:
$63.00 $50.40
Nonmember:
$82.00 $65.60
Considerations in Dysphagia Management
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.35
3.5
This journal self-study course explores some considerations that SLPs who work with specialized patient populations in various health care settings face in dysphagia management. Articles discuss instituting dysphagia exercise programs for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; the injury process and acute care management of individuals with dysphagia due to chemical ingestion; and preliminary evidence concerning new speaking valve technology for patients living with tracheostomy. The final article evaluates from a legal perspective the common practice of encouraging patients who decline dietary restrictions to sign waivers of liability.
Member:
$45.00 $36.00
Nonmember:
$59.00 $47.20
Gesture Use in Young Children With Atypical Language Development
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.35
3.5
It is well-established that the use of gesture is a precursor to language development. But what exactly is the relationship between gesture and language, and can the nature of this relationship be used diagnostically to better understand a child’s language development? This journal self-study examines these questions across a few populations. Two articles look at young children with specific language impairment or delay, and the combined results of these studies offer a complimentary view of the relationship between gesture and language based on the observed linguistic deficit (receptive or expressive). Another article compares gesture use between children with impaired hearing vs. peers with typical hearing. Findings from this study not only describe the use of gesture in young children with hearing impairment but also provide clinically useful information about caregivers’ responses to these gestures. The final article examines gesture use in girls with Rett syndrome. In addition to providing a helpful tutorial on a lesser-known population, the authors suggest how factors such as motor skills and genetics also contribute to the relationship between gesture and language.
Member:
$45.00 $36.00
Nonmember:
$59.00 $47.20
Best Seller
Vocabulary Acquisition for Preschool and School-Age Children
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.5
5.0
Vocabulary acquisition is a common goal for preschool and school-age children. This journal self-study course explores research that can enhance the theoretical basis for SLPs’ common practices and expand clinicians’ repertoire of evidence-based interventions for vocabulary instruction. The articles in this self-study explore increasing expressive vocabulary in school-age children with ASD by focusing on the relationship between individual speech sound inventories and psycholinguistic variables; explicit, embedded vocabulary instruction for at-risk preschool children during literacy activities; intervention for adjectives using learning theory principles; and essential components for effective vocabulary instruction.
Member:
$59.00 $47.20
Nonmember:
$77.00 $61.60
Variations in Language Skills in Children and Teens With ASD
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.4
4.0
While social communication deficits are prominent in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), both spoken and written language are also often affected. These language difficulties can be marked or subtle and can affect academic and social success. This journal self-study explores the ways that language deficits may present in higher-functioning children and teens with ASD and how the presence of autism may lead to differences in gesture use, making inferences from text, vocabulary, storytelling, and conversational skills. Clinicians working with children and adolescents with ASD can use this research to better identify variations in these skills and plan interventions to address the differences that impact school and interpersonal performance.
Member:
$50.00 $40.00
Nonmember:
$65.00 $52.00
New Directions for Auditory Training
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.25
2.5
Technological advances have led to a number of options for auditory training for individuals with hearing loss. This self-study, based on articles from a research forum published in the Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, looks at contemporary issues in auditory training to assist clinicians in developing therapeutic programs that better target individual needs and aid generalization. The first article summarizes a useful framework in which to view developments in auditory training. Two articles examine ways to effectively individualize training materials so that clients will make the most gains in treatment. Finally, a fourth article considers a number of factors that may help clinicians predict who will benefit most from these interventions.
Member:
$35.00 $28.00
Nonmember:
$46.00 $36.80
Enhancing AAC for Adults
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.3
3.0
People with severe communication disorders often benefit from the use of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). As technology has advanced and people have become more comfortable using a wide variety of programs, patient expectations about how AAC systems look and feel have also increased. In addition, programs and tools that are used daily, such as Facebook and Twitter, provide alternative communication options for people who have difficulty with face-to-face interactions. This journal self-study explores preferences about topics and types of visual supports as well as information about how people who use AAC can expand their communication using social media. Clinicians working with adults who use AAC can apply this information to improve decisions about methods and types of communication supports and maximize patient success.
Member:
$40.00 $32.00
Nonmember:
$52.00 $41.60
Improving AAC for Children
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.4
4.0
Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) often benefits children with severe disabilities. The most effective AAC systems consider the child’s individual needs and support learning and social interactions. This journal self-study explores ways to improve AAC systems to increase language skills, allow for more active participation in communication, and encourage emotional competence. Incorporating parent perceptions about AAC use into decision-making is also discussed, as are the benefits of peer involvement in communication using AAC. Clinicians will be able to incorporate strategies discussed to enhance services for children using AAC.
Member:
$50.00 $40.00
Nonmember:
$65.00 $52.00
Best Seller
Impact of Parental Beliefs and Behaviors on Children With ASD
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.4
4.0
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have language and social-pragmatic deficits that make communication difficult. Parent must learn to adapt to their child’s unique needs since their interactions are vital to the child’s success. This journal self-study explores parent attitudes and beliefs about their preschool and school-age children, as well as how parent interactions may affect the communication skills of a child with ASD. Clinicians working with children with ASD will benefit from understanding parent concerns, beliefs, attitudes, and interaction styles and can use this knowledge to engage parents more effectively in their child’s treatment.
Member:
$50.00 $40.00
Nonmember:
$65.00 $52.00
Best Seller
Specific Language Impairment in Special Populations
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.65
6.5
Proper diagnosis of specific language impairment (SLI) in children is essential for elucidating possible causal pathways of language impairments, assessment for identification of language impairments, linguistic dimensions of language impairments, and long-term outcomes. This journal self-study contains articles from a Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research supplement that describe SLI in detail, as well as highlight a few clinical areas in which this approach has been applied. Increased knowledge of SLIs together with evidence-based assessment strategies can assist practitioners in identifying and overcoming challenges faced by children with concomitant health conditions or nonmainstream language backgrounds.
Member:
$71.00 $56.80
Nonmember:
$92.00 $73.60
Using Language Sample Analysis to Assess Adolescents
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.45
4.5
Spoken and written communication skills are vital to academic and vocational success. Teenagers in middle and high school are presented with increasingly complex information and must be able to use language appropriately to understand, explain, and apply this information in a variety of ways. This journal self-study discusses what is known about how early speech sound disorders and language impairments—whether resolved or not—may affect language and literacy outcomes during adolescence. In addition, this course explores how spoken and written language sample analysis can be conducted with teens, considerations for including critical thinking tasks during language sample analysis, and what information can be obtained from such analyses. Clinicians will come away with a better understanding of ways to implement language sampling in their clinical practice and of the importance of going beyond standardized testing to fully assess adolescents.
Member:
$55.00 $44.00
Nonmember:
$72.00 $57.60
Best Seller
Stuttering Intervention for Children: Modifications to Two Common Programs
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.35
3.5
Stuttering is a particularly challenging speech disorder that can have a significant impact on a child’s self-esteem, social interactions, and academic success. Many treatment programs and techniques exist to address stuttering, and clinicians are always looking for new and better ways to help children with this disorder. This journal self-study explores the use of two specific programs – the Lidcombe and Camperdown programs – in modified situations. Articles examine the Lidcombe Program, designed for younger (preschool and some school-age) children, and discuss how clinicians can adapt the program for use in groups and for webcam delivery. A third article explores the factors that may best predict treatment time and long-term outcomes. The Camperdown Program, a treatment more often used for teens, is studied as a telehealth application to determine outcomes and child and parent reactions. SLPs working with children who stutter will benefit from a better understanding of how these programs work and how they can be adapted for more resource-efficient treatment.
Member:
$45.00 $36.00
Nonmember:
$59.00 $47.20
Advances in Stuttering Measurement and Treatment for Adults
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.35
3.5
Stuttering is a challenging speech disorder that can have a significant impact on the life of the person who stutters. This journal self-study addresses issues that have been identified in the literature regarding how reliable stuttering measures actually are and how clinicians are trained to make these determinations. In addition, this course explores some newer treatment methods, using virtual reality and an approach that is different from the typical prolonged speech treatment often used. Clinicians will come away with a better understanding of the importance of measuring what they intend to measure, how training impacts measurement, and how new treatment options may assist clients who stutter.
Member:
$45.00 $36.00
Nonmember:
$59.00 $47.20
Social and Academic Success for Children With ASD
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.45
4.5
This journal self-study addresses research and treatment ideas to improve the social and academic success of verbal elementary-age children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The self-study includes articles on two narrative intervention programs designed to improve the narrative abilities of children with ASD, which offer suggestions for how to implement such programs in clinical practice. It also includes a study that investigates how children with ASD understand and use gestures to identify nonpresent objects, with the intent of informing the design of intervention approaches for improved gesture use. A fourth article discusses teaching break requests to a child with ASD to help decrease problem behaviors and increase task engagement, which may improve the child’s achievement of treatment goals. Clinicians can use this information clinically to address the narrative and gesture skills of children with ASD and incorporate techniques to help address problem behaviors that may interfere with progress in treatment.
Member:
$55.00 $44.00
Nonmember:
$72.00 $57.60
Adult Swallowing Safety: Impact of Changes to Feeding and Swallowing Processes
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.3
3.0
SLPs employ many strategies when working with adults to address feeding and swallowing disorders. From evaluation through treatment, SLPs must consider the impact of alterations to foods, liquids, positioning, and more on swallowing efficiency and safety. This journal self-study investigates what impact the addition of barium to a bolus during a videofluoroscopic swallowing study has on swallowing behaviors; exactly what happens to the swallowing process when the chin-down posture is employed as a compensatory strategy; and how assisted feeding may affect swallowing. Clinicians will come away with a much better explanation of the physiological and functional changes that occur when they make bolus, head position, or feeding situation changes. The articles make specific recommendations about the appropriateness of the chin-down posture for specific types of patients, depending on the difficulties they are having during the swallow. Practical suggestions also are made for how to address some of the problems that are introduced by feeding assistance.
Member:
$40.00 $32.00
Nonmember:
$52.00 $41.60
Treatment for Acquired Apraxia of Speech: Understanding the Evidence
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.35
3.5
Acquired apraxia of speech (AOS) is a motor speech disorder caused by brain damage, such as from a stroke, and can range from only slight difficulty saying sounds and words to a complete inability to produce sound. Speech-language pathologists working with people with AOS often struggle to determine which treatments will work best to help those with this frustrating disorder. This journal self-study explores the research behind AOS treatment through an updated systematic review of the literature on AOS and exploration of outcomes of treatment for AOS that has been described in single-subject research. In addition, a discussion of a treatment using auditory masking is included, which builds upon and adds to the research on speech motor control. Clinicians will be able to apply the information in these articles to the treatment they provide and add to their arsenal of evidence-based treatment tools with confidence.
Member:
$45.00 $36.00
Nonmember:
$59.00 $47.20
Best Seller
Improving Phonological Awareness Skills in Preschool Children
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.55
5.5
Phonological awareness – the ability to identify and manipulate sounds in words – has been shown to predict a child’s later reading ability. But phonological awareness does not always develop naturally and thus requires instruction. However, many preschool teachers lack sufficient knowledge of phonological awareness and how to teach it. This journal self-study explores ways to improve phonological awareness instruction in preschools and provides suggestions on how SLPs can help teachers improve their phonological awareness knowledge. Clinicians will find practical tips for working directly with children with phonological awareness deficits and their families or with children enrolled in early education programs who need additional instruction to improve phonological awareness.
Member:
$63.00 $50.40
Nonmember:
$82.00 $65.60
Language Assessment and Intervention for Bilingual Children Best Buy
Format(s): Journal (Online)
Two journal self-studies examine techniques for language assessment and treatment of bilingual children.
Member:
$80.00
Nonmember:
$104.00
Best Seller
Issues in Bilingual Language Intervention
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.6
6.0
This journal self-study explores approaches to language assessment of bilingual children that attempt to improve and go beyond traditional standardized testing. Articles discuss the use of dynamic assessment, conceptual scoring, and language sample analysis to more accurately identify and diagnose bilingual language impairments, and revising cutoff scores on standardized tests in English to better identify language impairments in bilingual children. Clinicians with experience conducting bilingual assessments will be able to add these techniques to current assessment protocols while those with more limited experience will benefit from learning about these procedures and exploring how to incorporate them into the assessment process.
Member:
$67.00 $53.60
Nonmember:
$87.00 $69.60
Methods of Bilingual Language Assessment: Beyond Standardized Testing
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.4
4.0
This journal self-study explores approaches to language assessment of bilingual children that attempt to improve and go beyond traditional standardized testing. Articles discuss the use of dynamic assessment, conceptual scoring, and language sample analysis to more accurately identify and diagnose bilingual language impairments. And one article looks at how to revise cutoff scores on standardized tests in English to better identify language impairments in bilingual children. Clinicians with experience conducting bilingual assessments will be able to add these techniques to current assessment protocols, while those with more limited experience will benefit from learning about these procedures and exploring how to incorporate them into the assessment process.
Member:
$50.00 $40.00
Nonmember:
$65.00 $52.00
Concepts in Voice Therapy
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.5
5.0
Individuals with voice disorders present with a variety of symptoms that require both direct and indirect interventions, often from many disciplines. Behavioral treatment from SLPs has been shown to be both a useful adjunct to medical intervention and an effective primary treatment, depending upon the specific causes and symptoms each individual experiences. This journal self-study addresses issues in voice therapy, starting with an attempt to develop a classification system that captures all of the nuances of voice treatment so that researchers, clinicians, and others involved in treating voice issues can describe what occurs during treatment and identify how those components influence treatment outcomes. Additional articles contribute to the knowledge base of voice treatment by addressing the efficacy of long-used techniques such as phonation through thin tubes and straws, determining the state of the evidence for a specific voice disorder—paradoxical vocal fold motion, studying ways to improve adherence to voice treatment, and exploring the use of mobile biofeedback for learning and carryover. Clinicians treating individuals with voice disorders will benefit from this “hot off the presses” research that provides insight into the effectiveness of what they do and encourages new ways of thinking about and approaching treatment.
Member:
$59.00 $47.20
Nonmember:
$77.00 $61.60
Language in Kids Who Are Maltreated or Exposed Prenatally to Drugs or Alcohol
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.45
4.5
Children who experience stress and trauma in utero and early infancy, as well as those who are maltreated as they grow up, are at a higher risk for many medical, developmental, psychological, and emotional problems, including deficiencies in language skills due to brain dysfunction or lack of adequate stimulation. SLPs should be aware of the impact that maltreatment and prenatal exposure to drugs and alcohol can have on a child’s development to ensure appropriate assessment and treatment. This journal self-study includes research articles that explore the effect of maltreatment on language as well as what impact prenatal exposure to cocaine, alcohol, and other medical and environmental factors may have on language development. This information will help clinicians tease out small language differences that may relate to social and academic difficulties that cannot be explained otherwise.
Member:
$55.00 $44.00
Nonmember:
$72.00 $57.60
Best Seller
Early Hearing Detection and Intervention: Issues and Trends
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.45
4.5
For many years, states have been following national guidelines for universal newborn hearing screenings to help identify children with hearing loss and coordinate follow-up. Yet there are still significant numbers of children who are lost to follow-up and do not receive timely care. This journal self-study explores issues related to early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI), including what data are collected, how process changes may affect follow-up, which factors appear to most influence follow-up after the identification of hearing loss, and whether or not adding genetic testing to the newborn hearing screening process will aid in the detection of at-risk children. The self-study also looks at what can be done to support parents of children with hearing loss and how identification after the newborn period influences the timeliness of service delivery. Clinicians who work with newborns with hearing loss will benefit from learning more about the obstacles that prevent families from obtaining timely services and ways to assist other professionals and parents to ensure optimal care.
Member:
$53.00 $42.40
Nonmember:
$68.00 $54.40
Best Seller
Treatment Options for Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS)
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.45
4.5
Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is a complex motor speech disorder that oftenrequires lengthy treatment and may contribute, like many other speech disorders inchildren, to academic and social difficulties. Speech-language pathologists treatingchildren with CAS need a solid understanding of motor learning principles and howtreatment for CAS differs from that of other speech sound disorders. This journal self-study addresses what is currently known about treatment outcomes for CAS andexplores specific treatment programs that have been shown to benefit children with CASand are supported by evidence. Information about incorporating biofeedback, which isnot commonly used in the treatment of CAS, is also discussed, with preliminary studiesshowing promising results. In addition to specific treatment programs and tools, adiscussion of how to structure and vary treatment tasks is included, with all studiesproviding recommendations that can be incorporated immediately int
Member:
$55.00 $44.00
Nonmember:
$72.00 $57.60
Best Seller
Early Childhood Development: Predictors of Future Communication Challenges
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.45
4.5
This journal self-study explores the prelinguistic skills underlying speech and language development and the impact early delays may have on later communication proficiency. The articles in the self-study explain clinical indicators to help identify those children who are at risk for delays.
Member:
$55.00 $44.00
Nonmember:
$72.00 $57.60
Best Seller
Reading and Writing Development in School-Age Children: Current Concepts
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.65
6.5
Many SLPs are playing an increasing role in addressing literacy skills and often work as part of a team in schools to improve students’ reading and writing. This journal self-study adds to the knowledge base of SLPs working on literacy. Five articles address how literacy progresses over time in both typically developing children and those with speech and language disorders. SLPs who work with school-age children in or outside of schools will come away with an increased understanding of the role of linguistic awareness skills—such as phonological, morphological, and orthographic awareness—on reading and writing development, as well as the importance of vocabulary and overall language development. Each article provides recommendations for clinical practice that SLPs can consider as they continue to expand their literacy instruction.
Member:
$71.00 $56.80
Nonmember:
$92.00 $73.60
Reflections on Improving Clinical Practice
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.6
6.0
This clinical forum challenges you to consider your own clinical practices and to take a serious look at axioms that may have been influencing your clinical decisions and processes for years or decades. Drawing on scientific evidence grounded in clinical practice questions, the commentaries in this journal self-study assert that current intervention services for children and adolescents who have language and learning disorders could be improved. The authors translate their findings into clinically relevant insights for you to put into practice to promote better intervention outcomes.
Member:
$67.00 $53.60
Nonmember:
$87.00 $69.60
Addressing Swallowing in a Fluctuating Health Care Environment
Format(s): Journal (Online)
ASHA CEUs:
0.2
2.0
Speech-language pathologists working in health care are faced with many challenges, including an ever-changing reimbursement and regulatory landscape and varied patient population. These challenges require ongoing education and training, as well as knowledge of evidence-based practices and appropriate roles and responsibilities. This self-study addresses issues that SLPs working with dysphagia need to consider so that they can help their patients achieve the best possible clinical outcomes. The course begins with a discussion of the role of the SLP in addressing cough and then delves into a further discussion of sensory processing and how that may affect swallowing. It continues with a detailed description of issues the SLP must consider in long-term care settings and when providing palliative care. SLPs working with individuals with dysphagia can use this information to improve services and advocate for their role in the challenging health care environment.
Member:
$30.00 $24.00
Nonmember:
$39.00 $31.20

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