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Mixed results were noted across the various treatment categories:
- "Solid evidence is now available for the efficacy of several interventions, including [applied behavior analysis] ABA, naturalistic behavioral (i.e., milieu and [pivotal response training] PRT), developmental, video modeling, and [augmentative and alternative communication] AAC" (p. 27).
- "Research supports the effectiveness of ABA, PRT, and [the Picture Exchange Communication System] PECS under certain procedural variations and among particular subgroups of children with [autism spectrum disorder] ASD" (p. 27).
- "Interventions remaining in an exploratory stage of investigation included classroom-based treatments [e.g., Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children (TEACCH)], social skills interventions [i.e., social skills training, social stories, peer/sibling training], and one naturalistic behavioral approach (i.e., functional communication treatment)" (p. 27).
"Early-stage evidence [exists] for the application of video self-modeling to [increase] social engagement in young children with limited verbal skills" (p. 23).
"The use of sign language training (over speech alone) has received strong empirical support through the years; however, research comparing sign language training to other treatment methods is quite limited, with mixed findings" (p. 27).
"Current findings ... lend support for the efficacy of parent-based developmental interventions. Furthermore, results from a single-subject study suggest that developmental methods may improve the expressive language skills of young children with autism, including those who are nonverbal" (p. 21).
"Studies provide a measure of support for using naturalistic behavioral treatment methods to teach communication-related skills such as joint attention, symbolic play, turn taking, requesting, and spontaneous verbalizations to children with autism" (pp. 19-20).