Summary of the Systematic Review

Article Citation

Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations for Working with Individuals with Dementia: Spaced-Retrieval Training

Hopper, T., Mahendra, N., et al. (2005).
Journal of Medical Speech-Language Pathology, 13(4), xxvii-xxxiv.
Go to Article

Sponsoring Body

Academy of Neurologic Communication Disorders and Sciences; American Speech-Language-Hearing Association; Department of Veterans Affairs

Article Quality Ratings

Read about Our Rating Process

Indicators of Review Quality

  • Yes The review states a clearly focused question/aim.
  • Yes Criteria for inclusion of studies are provided.
  • Yes Search strategy described in sufficient detail for replication.
  • Yes Included studies are assessed for study quality.
  • No Quality assessments are reproducible.
  • No Characteristics of the included studies are provided.

Quality Rating Notes

Search Strategy: Additional details are provided at the Academy of Neurologic Communication Disorders and Sciences's Evidence Based Clinical Research webpage.

Article Details

Description

This is a review of quantitative studies that investigated the use of spaced-retrieval training for individuals with dementia. This review is part of a series of reports from the Academy of Neurologic Communication Disorders and Sciences focused on the assessment and management of individuals with Alzheimer-type dementia.

Questions/Aims Addressed

  1. Who are the participants who received spaced-retrieval training?
  2. What comprises spaced-retrieval training?
  3. What are the outcomes of spaced-retrieval training?
  4. What are key methodological concerns related to spaced-retrieval training studies?
  5. Are there clinically applicable trends across spaced-retrieval training studies?

Population

Older adults with dementia 

Intervention/Assessment

Spaced-retrieval training

Number of Studies Included

15

Years Included

Through September 2002


Conclusions from This Systematic Review

What are Conclusions?

Go to Map

Treatment

Implementation of spaced-retrieval training should be weekly or considered "more frequently depending on the nature of the association being learned and the individual characteristics of the client" (p. xxxii).

Keywords: Diagnosis, Dosage (Frequency/Intensity/Duration), Cognitive-Communication, Alzheimer’s Disease, Memory Training Programs

Expected outcomes of spaced-retrieval training include:

  • "improvement in the acquisition, retention and generalization of trained information and/or skills" (p. xxxii),
  • retention of learned information ranging from 1 day to several months post,
  • "generalization of learned information and/or skills to specific contexts and situations" (p. xxxii), and
  • no change in global cognitive or memory performance.

Keywords: Diagnosis, Alzheimer’s Disease, Cognitive-Communication, Memory Training Programs

Findings suggest that appropriate candidates for spaced retrieval training are individuals with:

  • declarative memory impairments ranging from mild to severe,
  • the ability to participate in structured training tasks, and
  • sufficient hearing and vision.

Keywords: Diagnosis, Mild-Moderate/Early Stage, Moderate-Severe/Late Stage, Cognitive-Communication, Alzheimer’s Disease, Memory Training Programs

"Although the results of the reviewed studies were overwhelmingly positive, methodological shortcomings warrant cautious interpretation of the findings. Lack of specification of participant characteristics decreases generalizability of the findings. Also, more attention must be paid to including interrater reliability judgments in the research examining the efficacy and effectiveness of [spaced-retrieval] training" (p. xxxii).

Keywords: Diagnosis, Alzheimer’s Disease, Cognitive-Communication, Memory Training Programs

Service Delivery

Implementation of spaced-retrieval training should be weekly or considered "more frequently depending on the nature of the association being learned and the individual characteristics of the client" (p. xxxii).

Keywords: Diagnosis, Dosage (Frequency/Intensity/Duration), Cognitive-Communication, Alzheimer’s Disease, Memory Training Programs

Notes on This Article

Associated Article

Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations for Working with Individuals with Dementia: Montessori-Based Interventions
Read ASHA's Article Summary | Go to Article

Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations for Dementia: Educating Caregivers on Alzheimer's Disease and Training Communication Strategies
Read ASHA's Article Summary | Go to Article

Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations: Caregiver-Administered Active Cognitive Stimulation for Individuals with Alzheimer's Disease
Read ASHA's Article Summary | Go to Article

Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations for Working with Individuals with Dementia: Simulated Presence Therapy
Read ASHA's Article Summary | Go to Article

Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations for Working with Individuals with Dementia: Computer-Assisted Cognitive Interventions (CACIs)
Read ASHA's Article Summary | Go to Article

Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations for Working with Individuals with Dementia: Group Reminiscence Therapy
Read ASHA's Article Summary | Go to Article

Our Partners