Summary of the Systematic Review

Article Citation

Remediation of Phonological Disorders in Preschool Age Children: Evidence for the Cycles Approach

Hassink, J. M., & Wendt, O. (2010).
EBP Briefs, 5(2), 1-7.
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Sponsoring Body

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Article Quality Ratings

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Indicators of Review Quality

  • Yes The review states a clearly focused question/aim.
  • Yes Criteria for inclusion of studies are provided.
  • Yes Search strategy described in sufficient detail for replication.
  • Yes Included studies are assessed for study quality.
  • Yes Quality assessments are reproducible.
  • Yes Characteristics of the included studies are provided.

Quality Rating Notes

Study Quality: Studies were assessed for study quality according to the Certainty of Evidence Framework, which appears to be available via an article cited in this review.

Article Details

Description

This is a review of experimental, quasi-experimental, and descriptive/non-experimental group designs investigating the effect of Cycles Approach on phonological disorders in preschool age children. 

Questions/Aims Addressed

  1. "Does the Cycles Approach effectively reduce the frequency of occurrence of phonological processes?
  2. Does the Cycles Approach efficiently remediate phonological disorders?" (p. 1). 

Population

Preschool age children with phonological disorders

Intervention/Assessment

Cycles Approach

Number of Studies Included

6

Years Included

Up to December 2009

Evidence Ratings for This Document

Recommendations are classified into one of four categories based on the strength of the supporting evidence, which are further defined as follows:

  • Conclusive: indicates that the outcomes were caused by the intervention
  • Preponderant: indicates that the outcomes were likely caused by the intervention
  • Suggestive: indicates a flawed study design or a strong study design with inadequate interrater reliability and treatment integrity
  • Inconclusive: refers to studies in which outcomes could not be attributed to the intervention due to a fatally flawed study design

Conclusions from This Systematic Review

What are Conclusions?

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Treatment

One study indicated that "the Cycles Approach is able to remediate a greater number of speech sound errors in a shorter period of time by targeting sound patterns instead of individual phonemes" (Inconclusive Evidence; p. 5).

Keywords: Dosage (Intensity/Duration), Generalization/Maintenance, Cycles Approach, Articulation/Phonological Disorder (Unknown Etiology)

Several studies suggested that "the Cycles Approach reduces phonological processes and improves production of non-target phonemes through generalization ..., that this intervention technique may be effectively administered in a group treatment setting such as a preschool program ... as long as the children are stimulable for target sounds ..., and that a combined Cycles Approach-phonological awareness program may also result in improved speech production" (Inconclusive Evidence; p. 4).

Keywords: Format (Group/Individual/Telepractice), Generalization/Maintenance, Cycles Approach, Articulation/Phonological Disorder (Unknown Etiology), Phonological Awareness Intervention

Although evidence was limited, several studies indicated that "it is plausible that the Cycles Approach results in improved consonant production in conversational contexts ..., that children with less severe phonological and language impairments improve in both domains when the Cycles Approach is used ..., and that earlier implementation of the Cycles Approach results in improved outcome" (Suggestive Evidence; p. 4).

Keywords: Timing (e.g. Pre- and Post-Op), Cycles Approach, Articulation/Phonological Disorder (Unknown Etiology)

Service Delivery

One study indicated that "the Cycles Approach is able to remediate a greater number of speech sound errors in a shorter period of time by targeting sound patterns instead of individual phonemes" (Inconclusive Evidence; p. 5).

Keywords: Dosage (Intensity/Duration), Generalization/Maintenance, Cycles Approach, Articulation/Phonological Disorder (Unknown Etiology)

Several studies suggested that "the Cycles Approach reduces phonological processes and improves production of non-target phonemes through generalization ..., that this intervention technique may be effectively administered in a group treatment setting such as a preschool program ... as long as the children are stimulable for target sounds ..., and that a combined Cycles Approach-phonological awareness program may also result in improved speech production" (Inconclusive Evidence; p. 4).

Keywords: Format (Group/Individual/Telepractice), Generalization/Maintenance, Cycles Approach, Articulation/Phonological Disorder (Unknown Etiology), Phonological Awareness Intervention

Although evidence was limited, several studies indicated that "it is plausible that the Cycles Approach results in improved consonant production in conversational contexts ..., that children with less severe phonological and language impairments improve in both domains when the Cycles Approach is used ..., and that earlier implementation of the Cycles Approach results in improved outcome" (Suggestive Evidence; p. 4).

Keywords: Timing (e.g. Pre- and Post-Op), Cycles Approach, Articulation/Phonological Disorder (Unknown Etiology)

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