COVID-19 UPDATES: Find news and resources for audiologists, speech-language pathologists, and the public. 
Latest Updates | Telepractice Resources | Email Us 

Voice and Communication Services for Transgender and Gender Diverse Populations

Adler, R. (2017). The SLP as counselor for the transgender client. Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups, 2(10), 92–101.

Adler, R., Hirsch, S., & Pickering, J. (Eds.). (2018). Voice and communication therapy for the transgender/gender diverse client: A comprehensive clinical guide (3rd ed.). San Diego, CA: Plural.

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2016). Code of ethics [Ethics]. Retrieved from

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2017). Issues in ethics: Cultural and linguistic competence. Retrieved from

Azul, D., Arnold, A., & Neuschaefer-Rube, C. (2018). Do transmasculine speakers present with gender-related voice problems? Insights from a participant-centered mixed-methods study. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 61, 25–39.

Bouman, W. P., Schwend, A. S., Motmans, J., Smiley, A., Safer, J. D., Deutsch, M. B., . . . Winter, S. (2017). Language and trans health. International Journal of Transgenderism, 18, 1–6.

Carew, L., Dacakis, G., & Oates, J. (2007). The effectiveness of oral resonance therapy on the perception of femininity of voice in male-to-female transsexuals. Journal of Voice, 21,591–603.

Civil Rights Act of 1964, P.L. 88-352, 20 U.S.C. §§ 241 et seq.

Dacakis, G., Davies, S., Oates, J. M., Douglas, J. M., & Johnston, J. R. (2013). Development and preliminary evaluation of the Transsexual Voice Questionnaire for male-to-female transsexuals. Journal of Voice, 27, 312–320.

Dacakis, G., Oates, J., & Douglas, J. (2017a). Associations between the Transsexual Voice Questionnaire (TVQMtF) and self-report of voice femininity and acoustic voice measures. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 52, 831–838.

Dacakis, G., Oates, J. M., & Douglas, J. M. (2017b). Further evidence of the construct validity of the Transsexual Voice Questionnaire (TVQMtF) using principal components analysis.Journal of Voice, 31, 142–148.

Davies, S. (2017). The evidence behind the practice: A review of WPATH suggested guidelines in transgender voice and communication. Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups, 2(10), 64–73.

Davies, S., Papp, V., & Antoni, C. (2015). Voice and communication for gender nonconforming individuals: Giving voice to the person inside. International Journal of Transgenderism, 1, 117–159.

Gelfer, M. P., & Mikos, V. A. (2005). The relative contributions of speaking fundamental frequency and formant frequencies to gender identification based on isolated vowels. Journal of Voice, 19, 544–554.

Hancock, A. B. (2015). The role of cultural competence in serving transgender populations. Perspectives on Voice and Voice Disorders, 25(1), 37–42.

Hancock, A. B., Childs, K. D., & Irwig, M. S. (2017). Trans male voice in the first year of testosterone therapy: Make no assumptions. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 60, 2472–2482.

Hancock, A. B., & Garabedian, L. M. (2013). Transgender voice and communication treatment: A retrospective chart review of 25 cases. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 45, 313–324.

Hann, M., Ivester, R., & Dodd Denton, G. (2017). Bioethics in practice: Ethical issues in the care of transgender patients. The Ochsner Journal, 17, 144–145.

Hillenbrand, J., & Clark, M. (2009). The role of F0 and formant frequencies in distinguishing the voices of men and women. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 71, 1150–1166.

Hirsch, S. (2017). Combining voice, speech science and art approaches to resonant challenges in transgender voice and communication training. Perspectives of the ASHA Special Interest Groups, 2(10), 74–82.

Irwig, M. S., Childs, K., & Hancock, A. B. (2016). Effects of testosterone on the transgender male voice. Andrology, 107–112.

James, S. E., Herman, J. L., Rankin, S., Keisling, M., Mottet, L., & Anafi, M. (2016). The report of the 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey. Washington, DC: National Center for Transgender Equality. Retrieved from

Leung, Y., Oates, J., & Chan, S. (2018). Voice, articulation, and prosody contribute to listener perceptions of speaker gender: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 61, 266–297.

Nygren, U., Nordenskjöld, A., Arver, S., & Södersten, M. (2016). Effects on voice fundamental frequency and satisfaction with voice in trans men during testosterone treatment—A longitudinal study. Journal of Voice, 30, 766.e23–766.e34.

Oates, J., & Dacakis, G. (2015). Transgender voice and communication: Research evidence underpinning voice intervention for male-to-female transsexual women. Perspectives on Voice and Voice Disorders, 25(2), 48–58.

Owen, K., & Hancock, A. (2010). The role of self- and listener perceptions of femininity in voice therapy. International Journal of Transgenderism, 12, 272–284.

Papp, V. G. (2011). The female-to-male transsexual voice: Physiology vs. performance in production (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Rice University, Houston, TX.

Pickering, J. E., & Kayajian, D. (February 2014). Group voice and communication intervention: The first five years. Paper presented at the 2014 World Professional Association for Transgender Health Biennial Symposium, Bangkok, Thailand.

Schneider, S., & Courey, M. (2016). Transgender voice and communication-vocal health and considerations. In M. Deutsch (Ed.), Guidelines for the primary and gender-affirming care of transgender and gender nonbinary people(pp. 161–171). Retrieved from 

White Hughto, J. M., Reisner, S. L., & Pachankis, J. E. (2015). Transgender stigma and health: A critical review of stigma determinants, mechanisms, and interventions. Social Science & Medicine (1982)147, 222–231.

World Professional Association for Transgender Health. (2011). Standards of care for the health of transsexual, transgender, and gender nonconforming people (7th version). Retrieved from

Ziegler, A., Henke, T., Wiedrick, J., & Helou, L. B. (2017). Effectiveness of testosterone therapy for masculinizing voice in transgender patients: A meta-analytic review. International Journal of Transgenderism, 19, 25–45. 

Content Disclaimer: The Practice Portal, ASHA policy documents, and guidelines contain information for use in all settings; however, members must consider all applicable local, state and federal requirements when applying the information in their specific work setting.