COVID-19 UPDATES: Find news and resources for audiologists, speech-language pathologists, and the public. 
Latest Updates | Telepractice Resources | Email Us | Chat With Action Center

Adult Dysphagia

Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR). (1999). Diagnosis and treatment of swallowing disorders (dysphagia) in acute-care stroke patients [Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 8, AHCPR Publication No. 99-E024]. Rockville, MD.

Alagiakrishnan, K., Bhanji, R. A., & Kurian, M. (2013). Evaluation and management of oropharyngeal dysphagia in different types of dementia: A systematic review. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 56, 1–9.

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2004a). Guidelines for speech-language pathologists performing videofluoroscopic swallowing studies [Guidelines], Rescinded. Available from

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2004b). Preferred practice patterns for the profession of speech-language pathology [Preferred Practice Patterns]. Available from

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2009).Frequently asked questions (FAQ) on swallowing screening: Special emphasis on patients with acute stroke. Retrieved from

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2016). Code of ethics [Ethics]. Available from

Altman, K. W., Yu, G. P., & Schaefer, S. D. (2010). Consequence of dysphagia in the hospitalized patient: Impact on prognosis and hospital resources. Archives of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery, 136, 784–789.

Barczi, S. R., Sullivan, P. A., & Robbins, J. (2000). How should dysphagia care of older adults differ? Establishing optimal practice patterns. Seminars in Speech and Language Pathology, 21, 347–361.

Barer, D. (1989). The natural history and functional consequences of dysphagia after hemispheric stroke. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 52, 236–241.

Bhattacharyya, N. (2014). The prevalence of dysphagia among adults in the United States. Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, 151, 765–769.

Bloem, B., Lagaay, A., van Beek, W., Haan, J., Roos, R., & Wintzen, A. (1990). Prevalence of subjective dysphagia in community residents aged over 87. British Medical Journal, 300, 721–722.

Bonilha, H. S., Blair, J., Carnes, B., Huda, W., Humphries, K., McGrattan, K., . . . Martin-Harris B. (2013a). Preliminary investigation of the effect of pulse rate on judgments of swallowing impairment and treatment recommendations. Dysphagia, 28, 528–538.

Bonilha, H. S., Humphries, K., Blair, J., Hill, E. G., McGrattan, K., Carnes, B., . . . Martin-Harris B. (2013b). Radiation exposure time during MBSS: Influence of swallowing impairment severity, medical diagnosis, clinician experience, and standardized protocol use. Dysphagia, 28, 77–85.

Cabré, M., Serra-Prat, M., Force, L., Almirall, J., Palomera, E., & Clavé, P. (2014). Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a risk factor for readmission for pneumonia in the very elderly persons: Observational prospective study. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 69, 330–337.

Calcagno, P., Ruoppolo, G., Grasso, M., De Vincentiis, M., & Paolucci, S. (2002). Dysphagia in multiple sclerosis: Prevalence and prognostic factors. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 105, 40–43.

Chadwick, D. D., Jolliffe, J., Goldbart, J., & Burton, M. H. (2006). Barriers to caregiver compliance with eating and drinking recommendations for adults with intellectual disabilities and dysphagia. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 19, 153–162.

Coates, C., & Bakheit, A. (1997). Dysphagia in Parkinson's disease. European Neurology, 38, 49–52.

De Pauw, A., Dejaeger, E., D'Hooghe, B., & Carton, H. (2002). Dysphagia in multiple sclerosis. Clinical Neurology & Neurosurgery, 104, 345–351.

DePippo, K. L., Holas, M. A., & Reding, M. J. (1992). Validation of the 3-oz Water Swallow Test for aspiration following stroke. Archives of Neurology, 49, 1259–1261.

Donzelli, J., & Brady, S. (2004). The effects of breath-holding on vocal fold adduction: Implications for safe swallowing. Archives of Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery, 130, 208–210.

Falsetti, P., Caterina, A., Palilla, R., Bo, M., Carpinteri, F., Zingarelli, A., . . . Lenzi, L. (2009). Oropharyngeal dysphagia after stroke: Incidence, diagnosis, and clinical predictors in patients admitted to a neurorehabilitation unit. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases, 18, 329–335.

Flowers, H. L., Silver, F. L., Fang, J., Rochon, E., & Martino, R. (2013). The incidence, co-occurrence, and predictors of dysphagia, dysarthria, and aphasia after first-ever acute ischemic stroke. Journal of Communication Disorders, 46, 238–248.

Garcia-Peris, P., Parón, L., Velasco, C., De la Cuerda, C., Camblor, M., Bretón, I., . . . Clave, P. (2007). Long-term prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia in head and neck cancer patients: Impact on quality of life. Clinical Nutrition, 26, 710–717.

Gordon, C., Hewer, R., & Wade, D. (1987). Dysphagia in acute stroke. British Medical Journal Clinical Research Edition, 295, 411–414.

Groher, M. E., & Crary, M. A. (2010). Dysphagia: Clinical management in adults and children. Atlanta, GA: Mosby Elsevier.

Hsiao, M. Y., Wahyuni, L. K., & Wang, T. G. (2013). Ultrasonography in assessing oropharyngeal dysphagia. Journal of Medical Ultrasound, 21, 181–188.

Huckabee, M. L., & Steele, C. M. (2006). An analysis of lingual contribution to submental surface electromyographic measures and pharyngeal pressure during effortful swallow. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 87, 1067–1072.

Jonsen, A. R., Siegler, M., & Winslade, W. J. (1992). Clinical ethics. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Kalf, J. G., de Swart, B. J. M., Bloem B. R., & Munneke, M. (2011). Prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia in Parkinson's disease: A meta-analysis. Parkinsonism Related Disorders, 18, 311–315.

Kawashima, K., Motohashi, Y., & Fujishima, I. (2004). Prevalence of dysphagia among community-dwelling elderly individuals as estimated using a questionnaire for dysphagia screening. Dysphagia, 19, 266–271.

Langmore, S. E., Kenneth, S. M., & Olsen, N. (1988). Fiberoptic endoscopic examination of swallowing safety: A new procedure. Dysphagia , 2, 216–219.

Layne, K., Losinski, D., Zenner, P., & Ament, J. (1989). Using the Fleming Index of Dysphagia to establish prevalence. Dysphagia, 4, 39–42.

Leder, S. B., Ross, D. A., Briskin, K. B., & Sasaki, C. T. (1997). A prospective, double-blind, randomized study on the use of a topical anesthetic, vasoconstrictor, and placebo during transnasal flexible fiberoptic endoscopy. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 40, 1352–1357.

Lindgren, S., & Janzon, L. (1991). Prevalence of swallowing complaints and clinical findings among 50–79-year-old men and women in an urban population. Dysphagia, 6, 187–192.

Logemann J. A. (1986). Manual for the videofluorographic study of swallowing. Boston, MA: Little, Brown.

Logemann, J. A. (1998). Evaluation and treatment of swallowing disorders (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Mann, G., Hankey, G., & Cameron, D. (1999). Swallowing function after stroke: Prognosis and prognostic factors at 6 months. Stroke, 30, 744–748.

Marik, P. E. (2001). Aspiration pneumonitis and aspiration pneumonia. New England Journal of Medicine, 344, 665–671.

Martin-Harris, B., Brodsky, M. B., Michel, Y., Castell, D. O., Schleicher, M., Sandidge, J., . . . Blair, J. (2008). MBS measurement tool for swallow impairment—MBSImp: Establishing a standard. Dysphagia, 23, 392–405.

Martin-Harris, B., Brodsky, M. B., Michel, Y., Ford, C. L., Walters, B., & Heffner, J. (2005). Breathing and swallowing dynamics across the adult lifespan. Archives of Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery, 131, 762–770.

Martin-Harris, B., Logemann, J., McMahon, S., Schleicher, M., & Sandidge, J. (2000). Clinical utility of the modified barium swallow. Dysphagia, 15, 136–141.

Martino, R ., Foley, N.,Bhogal, S.,Diamant, N., Speechley, M., & Teasell, R. (2005). Dysphagia after stroke: Incidence, diagnosis, and pulmonary complications. Stroke, 36, 2756–2763.

Matsuo, K., & Palmer, J. B. (2008). Anatomy and physiology of feeding and swallowing: Normal and abnormal. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 19, 691–707.

Mold, J., Reed, L., Davis, A., Allen, M., Decktor, D., & Robinson, M. (1991). Prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux in elderly patients in a primary care setting. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 86, 965–970.

National Foundation of Swallowing Disorders. (n.d.). Swallowing disorder basics. Retrieved from

National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. (n.d.). Statistics and epidemiology—Statistics on voice, speech, and language. Retrieved from

O'Kane, L., Groher, M. E., Silva, K., & Osborn, L. (2010). Normal muscular activity during swallowing as measured by surface electromyography. Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology, 119, 398–401.

Plonk, W. M. (2005). To PEG or not to PEG. Practical Gastroenterology, 29(7), 16–31.

Riquelme, L. F. (2004). Cultural competence in dysphagia. The ASHA Leader, 9, 8–22. Retrieved from

Roden, D. F., & Altman, K. W. (2013). Causes of dysphagia among different age groups: A systematic review of the literature. Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America, 46, 965–987.

Rosenbek, J. C., Robbins, J., Roecker, E. B., Coyle, J. L., & Wood, J. L. (1996). A Penetration-Aspiration Scale. Dysphagia, 11, 93–98. doi:10.1007/BF00417897

Sandidge, J. (2009). The Modified Barium Swallow Impairment Profile (MBSImp): A new standard physiologic approach to swallowing assessment and targeted treatment. Perspectives on Swallowing and Swallowing Disorders (Dysphagia), 18, 117–122.

Schmidt, J., Holas, M., Halvorson, K., & Reding, M. (1994). Videofluoroscopic evidence of aspiration predicts pneumonia and death but not dehydration following stroke. Dysphagia, 9(1), 7–11.

Serra-Prat, M., Hinojosa, G., López, D., Juanm M., Fabré, E., Voss, D. S., . . . Arreola, V. (2011). Prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia and impaired safety and efficacy of swallow in independently living older persons. Journal of American Geriatric Society, 59, 186–187.

Skoretz, S. A., Flowers, H., & Martino R. (2010). The incidence of dysphagia following endotracheal intubation: A systematic review. Chest, 137, 665–673.

Spechler, S. (1999). AGA technical review on treatment of patients with dysphagia caused by benign disorders of the distal esophagus. Gastroenterology, 117, 233–254.

Steele, C., Greenwood, C., Ens, I., Robertson, C., & Seidman-Carlson, R. (1997). Mealtime difficulties in a home for the aged: Not just dysphagia. Dysphagia, 12, 43–50.

Sura, L., Madhavan, A., Carnaby, G., & Crary, M. A. (2012). Dysphagia in the elderly: Management and nutritional considerations. Clinical Intervention and Aging, 7, 287–298.

Terre, R., & Mearin, F. (2009). Evolution of tracheal aspiration in severe traumatic brain injury-related oropharyngeal dysphagia: 1-year longitudinal follow-up study. Neurogastroenterology & Motility, 21, 361–369.

Tibbling, L., & Gustafsson, B. (1991). Dysphagia and its consequences in the elderly. Dysphagia, 6, 200–202.

Tracy, J. F., Logemann, J. A., Kahrilas, P. J., Jacob, P., Kobara, M., & Krugler, C. (1989). Preliminary observations on the effects of age on oropharyngeal deglutition. Dysphagia, 4(2), 90–94.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (n.d.). Performance standards for ionizing radiation emitting products. Retrieved from

Westby, C., Burda, A., & Mehta, Z. (2003). Asking the right questions in the right ways. The ASHA Leader, 8, 4–17. Retrieved from

World Health Organization. (2001). International classification of functioning, disability, and health. Geneva, Switzerland: Author.

Content Disclaimer: The Practice Portal, ASHA policy documents, and guidelines contain information for use in all settings; however, members must consider all applicable local, state and federal requirements when applying the information in their specific work setting.