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Cultural Competence

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2004). Preferred practice patterns for the profession of speech-language pathology . Available from

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2006). Preferred practice patterns for the profession of audiology . Available from

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2016). Code of ethics . Available from

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2017). Issues in ethics: Cultural and linguistic competence. Available from

Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990, Pub. L. No. 101-336, § 2, 104 Stat. 328 (1991).

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design . Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Civil Rights Act of 1964, § 6, 42 U.S.C. § 2000d et seq (1964).

Cross, T., Bazron, B., Dennis, K., & Isaacs, M. (1989). Towards a culturally competent system of care, Volume I. Washington, DC: CAASP Technical Assistance Center, Georgetown University Child Development Center.

DeJarnette, G., Rivers, K. O., & Hyter, Y. D. (2015). Ways of examining speech acts in young African American children: Considering inside-out and outside-in approaches. Topics in Language Disorders , 35 (1), 61–75.

Equal Educational Opportunities Act of 1974, 20 U.S.C. § 1701 et seq (1974).

Exec. Order No. 13166, 3 C.F.R. (2000).

Fadiman, A. (1998). The spirit catches you and you fall down: A Hmong child, her American doctors, and the collision of two cultures . New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974, 20 U.S.C. § 1232g et seq (1974).

Fuller, K. (2002). Eradicating essentialism from cultural competency education. Academic Medicine, 77, 198–201.

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, Pub. L. No. 104-191, 110 Stat. 1938 (1996).

Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing cultures: The Hofstede model in context. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2 (1). Retrieved from

Hosp, J. (n.d.). Response to intervention and the disproportionate representation of culturally and linguistically diverse students in special education . Retrieved from

Hwa-Froelich, D., & Westby, C. (2003). Frameworks of education: Perspectives of Southeast Asian parents and Head Start staff. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 34 , 299–319.

Individuals With Disabilities Education Act, 20 U.S.C. § 1400 (2004).

Kalyanpur, M., & Harry, B. (1999). Culture in special education: Building reciprocal family-professional relationships . Baltimore, MD: Brookes.

Kohnert, K. (2008). Language disorders in bilingual children and adults . San Diego, CA: Plural.

National Education Association. (2007). Truth in labeling: Disproportionality in special education . Washington, DC: National Education Association.

Office of Minority Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d). The national culturally and linguistically appropriate services standards in health and health care . Retrieved from

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, 42 U.S.C. § 18001 (2010).

Riquelme, L. (2013). Cultural competence for everyone: A shift in perspectives . Perspectives on Gerontology, 18 (2), 42–49.

Shannon, S. E., & Tatum, P. (2002). Spirituality and end-of-life care. Missouri Medicine , 99 (10), 571–576.

Street, R. L. Jr., O'Malley, K. J., Cooper, L. A., & Haidet, P. (2008). Understanding concordance in patient-physician relationships: Personal and ethnic dimensions of shared identity. The Annals of Family Medicine, 6 (3), 198–205. Retrieved from

Westby, C. (2007). Child maltreatment: A global issue. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 38, 140–148. Retrieved from

Westby, C., Burda, A., & Mehta, Z. (2003, April 29). Asking the right questions in the right ways: Strategies for ethnographic interviewing. The ASHA Leader . Retrieved from

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