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Permanent Childhood Hearing Loss

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2006). Guidelines for monitoring and management of pediatric patients during and after sedation for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures: An update Pediatrics, 118(6), 2587-2602. 

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2010). Code of ethics [Ethics]. Available from

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2018). Scope of practice in audiology [Scope of practice]. Available from

Boulet, S. L., Boyle, C. A., & Schieve, L. A. (2009). Health care use and health and functional impact of developmental disabilities of U.S. children, 1997-2005. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 163(1), 19-26.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). Summary of 2009 national CDC EHDI data [2009 CDC EHDI Hearing Screening & Follow-up Survey (HSFS)]. Retrieved from

DesJardin, J. L. (2006). Family empowerment: Supporting language development in young children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Volta Review, 106(3), 275-298.

Eiser, C., Parkyn, T., Havermans, T., & McNinch, A. (1994). Parent's recall on the diagnosis of cancer in their child. Psycho-oncology, 3(3), 197-203.

Gorga, M. P., Neely, S. T., Olrich, B., Hoover, B., Redner, J., & Peters, J. (1997). From laboratory to clinic: A large scale study of distortion product otoacoustic emissions in ears with normal hearing and ears with hearing loss. Ear and Hearing, 18, 440-455.

Hille, E. T., van Straaten, H. I., & Verkerk, P. H. (2007). Prevalence and independent risk factors for hearing loss in NICU infants. Acta Pediatrica, 96(8), 1155-1158.

Humes, L. E., & Kirn, E. U. (1990). The reliability of functional gain. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 55, 193-197.

Hussain, D. M., Gorga, M. P., Neely, S. T., Keefe, D. H., & Peters, J. (1998). Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions in patients with normal hearing and in patients with hearing loss. Ear and Hearing, 19, 434-449.

Joint Committee on Infant Hearing. (2007). Year 2007 position statement: Principles and guidelines for early hearing detection and intervention. Pediatrics, 120, 898-921.

Kei, J. (2012). Acoustic stapedial reflexes in healthy neonates: Normative data and test-retest reliability. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, 23(1), 460.

Litovsky, R., Johnstone, P., & Godar, S. (2006). Benefits of bilateral cochlear implants and/or hearing aids in children. International Journal of Audiology, 45(Suppl. 1), S78-S91.

Margolis, R.H., Bass-Ringdahl, S.B., Hanks, W.D., Holte, L., & Zapala, D.A. (2003). Tympanometry in newborn infants-1kHz norms. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology 14, 383-392.

Morton, C. C., & Nance, W. E. (2006). Newborn hearing screening-A silent revolution. New England Journal of Medicine, 354, 2151-2164.

Murphy, J., & O'Donoghue, G. (2007). Bilateral cochlear implantation: An evidence-based medicine evaluation. Laryngoscope, 117(8), 1412-1418.

National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. (n.d.). Quick statistics. Retrieved from

New York State Department of Health, Early Intervention Program. (2007). Clinical practice guideline: Report of the recommendations. Hearing loss, assessment and intervention for young children (Age 0-3 Years). (NYS Department of Health, Publication No. 4967). Albany, NY: Author.

The Pediatric Working Group of the Conference on Amplification for Children with Auditory Deficits. (1996). Amplification for infants and children with hearing loss. American Journal of Audiology, 5(1), 53-68.

Reese, J. L., & Hnath-Chisolm, T. (2005). Recognition of hearing aid orientation content by first-time users. American Journal of Audiology, 14(1), 94-104.

Sininger, Y. S., Grimes, A., & Christensen, E. (2010). Auditory development in early amplified children: Factors influencing auditory-based communication outcomes in children with hearing loss. Ear and Hearing, 31(2),166-185.

Yoshinaga-Itano, C., Baca, R. L., &. Sedey, A. L. (2010). Describing the trajectory of language development in the presence of severe to profound hearing loss: A closer look at children with cochlear implants versus hearing aids. Otology and Neurotology, 31(8), 1268-1274.

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