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The meta-analysis conducted three different analyses: initial treatment effects, over-time treatment effects, and subgroup effects. Although most of the investigated interventions had positive effects, results indicated goal setting to have the largest treatment effects, initially and over time, compared to previewing or rereading, reinforcement, word-level or phonological training, and peer tutoring.
Results indicated no significant difference of treatment effects on students of minority racial/ethnic heritage, gender, or regular or special education setting. “Although students with any particular type of disability displayed increases in their fluency subsequent to receiving intervention, those students with autism, [intellectual disability], or behavioral disorders typically made much smaller gains than students with learning disabilities or visual impairments” (p. 104).