Summary of the Systematic Review

Article Citation

Initial and Over-Time Effects of Fluency Interventions for Students With or At Risk for Disabilities

Morgan, P. L., Sideridis, G., et al. (2012).
Journal of Special Education, 46(2), 94-116.
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Sponsoring Body

No funding received

Article Quality Ratings

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Indicators of Review Quality

  • Yes The review states a clearly focused question/aim.
  • Yes Criteria for inclusion of studies are provided.
  • Yes Search strategy described in sufficient detail for replication.
  • No Included studies are assessed for study quality.
  • N/A Quality assessments are reproducible.
  • Yes Characteristics of the included studies are provided.

Article Details


This is a systematic review and meta-analysis of single-case design studies investigating reading fluency interventions in students with or at risk for disabilities.

Questions/Aims Addressed

This article aimed to identify the effects of interventions that improve reading fluency of students with or at risk for disabilities.


Students, kindergarten through 12th grade, with or at risk for disabilities


Reading fluency interventions

Number of Studies Included


Years Included

between January 1990 and January 2006

Conclusions from This Systematic Review

What are Conclusions?

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The meta-analysis conducted three different analyses: initial treatment effects, over-time treatment effects, and subgroup effects. Although most of the investigated interventions had positive effects, results indicated goal setting to have the largest treatment effects, initially and over time, compared to previewing or rereading, reinforcement, word-level or phonological training, and peer tutoring.

Keywords: Reading Fluency, Metacognitive Strategies (Self-Monitoring/Regulation/Goal Setting), Peer-Mediated Interventions (PALS/Reciprocal Learning), Phonological/Phonemic Awareness Interventions, Reading Aloud Interventions (Dialogic Reading/Repeated Reading)

Results indicated no significant difference of treatment effects on students of minority racial/ethnic heritage, gender, or regular or special education setting. “Although students with any particular type of disability displayed increases in their fluency subsequent to receiving intervention, those students with autism, [intellectual disability], or behavioral disorders typically made much smaller gains than students with learning disabilities or visual impairments” (p. 104).

Keywords: Autism, Reading Fluency, Behavioral/Emotional Disorder, Intellectual Disabilities, Learning Disabilities

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