American Speech-Language-Hearing Association

International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) Resources

ICF and Communication Disorders

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2007). Scope of Practice in Speech-Language Pathology . Rockville, MD: Author.

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2004). Preferred Practice Patterns for the Profession of Speech-Language Pathology. Rockville, MD: Author.

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2004). Scope of Practice in Audiology. Rockville, MD: Author.

Boles, L. (2004). The ICF language of numeric adjectives. Advances in Speech-Language Pathology, 6(1), 71–73.

Bornman, J. (2004). The World Health Organisation's terminology and classification: application to severe disability. Disability and Rehabilitation, 26(3), 182–188.

Brobeck, T. (2004). Strategies for enhancing the body of evidence in clinical decision making. Perspectives on Neurophysiology and Neurogenic Speech and Language Disorders, 14(1), 11–14.

Brush, J., Threats, T., & Calkins, M. (2003). Influences on perceived function for a nursing home resident. Journal of Communication Disorders, 36, 379–393.

Classifying and Reporting Functional Health Status [PDF] - A report from the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics.

Cruice, M., Worrall, L., Hickson, L., & Murison, R. (2003). Finding a focus for quality of life with aphasia: Social and emotional health and psychological well-being. Aphasiology, 17(4), 333–353.

Davidson, B, Worrall, L., & Hickson, L. (2003). Identifying the communication activities of older people with aphasia: Evidence from naturalistic observation. Aphasiology, 17(3), 243–264.

Donaldson, N., Worrall, L., and Hickson, L. (2004) Older People With Hearing Impairment: A literature review of the spouses' perspective. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Audiology, 26(1), 30–39.

Duchan, J.F. (2004). Where is the person in the ICF? Advances in Speech-Language Pathology, 6(1), 67–70.

Eadie, T. (2003). A Proposed Framework for Comprehensive Rehabilitation of Individuals Who Use Alaryngeal Speech. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 12(2), 189–197.

Eadie, T., Yorkston, K., Klasner, E., Dudgeon, B., Deitz, J., Baylor, C., Miller, R., & Antmann, D. (2006). Measuring communication participation: A review of self-report instruments in speech-language pathology. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 15, 307–320.

Feeney, T.J. & Ylvisaker, M. (2003). Context-sensitive behavioral supports for young children with TBI. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 18(1), 33–51.

Garcia, L.J., Laroche, C., & Barrette, J. (2002). Work integration issues go beyond the nature of the communication disorder. Journal of Communication Disorders, 35, 187–211.

Hammerton, J. (2004). An investigation into the influence of age on recovery from stroke with community rehabilitation. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.

Hickson, L., & Worrall, L. (2001). Older people with hearing impairment: Application of the new World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning and Disability. Asia Pacific Journal of Speech Language and Hearing, 6(2), 129–133.

Hilari, K (2005). Choosing relevant outcomes for aphasia: A commentary on Ross and Wertz, "Advancing appraisal: Aphasia and the WHO." Aphasiology, 19(9), 870–875.

Hopper, T. (2004, Oct. 19). Long-term Care Residents with Dementia: Assessment and Intervention. The ASHA Leader, 24, 10–11.

Howe, T., Worrall, L., & Hickson, L. (2004) What is an aphasia-friendly environment? A review. Aphasiology, 18(11), 1015–1037.

Heerkens, Y., van der Brug, Y., Napel, H.T., & van Ravensburg, D. (2003). Past and future use of the ICF (former ICIDH) by nursing and allied health. Disability and Rehabilitation, 25(11-12), 620–627.

Ikonen, A, Korjus-Julkunen, L. & Aikas, H. (2003). ICF- toimiva tyokalu puheterapian kuvaamissen [ICF-a useful tool to describe speech therapy] Puheterapeutti-lehti, 3, 17–19.

International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) template.

Isaki, E. & Turkstra, L. (2002). Communication abilities and work re-entry following traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 14(5), 441–453.

Kagan, A., Simmons-Mackie, N., Rowland, A., Huijbregts, M., Shumway, E., McEwen, S., Threats, T., & Sharp, S. (2008). Counting what counts: A framework for capturing real-life outcomes of aphasia intervention. Aphasiology, 22 (3), 258–280.

Larkins, B., Worrall, L., & Hickson, L. (2004). Stakeholder opinion of functional communication activities following traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 18(7), 691–706.

Larkins, B., Worrall, L., & Hickson, L (2004). Use of multiple methods to determine items relevant for a functional communication assessment. New Zealand journal of speech-language therapy, 59.

Law, I. (2005) Functional communication following laryngectomy. Master of Philosphy thesis. Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong.

League of Community-based Speech-Language-Hearing Therapists (2004) Conversation partners for people with aphasia: Let's talk with people with aphasia. Tokyo: Chuohoki Shuppan: Tokyo (In Japanese).

Lubker, B. (1997). Epidemiology: an essential science for speech-language pathology and audiology. Journal of Communication Disorders, 30, 251–267.

Ma, E. (2003). Impairment, activity limitation and participation restriction issues in assessing dysphonia. Doctor of Philosphy thesis. Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong.

Ma, E.P-M. & Yiu, E.M-L. (2001). Voice activity and participation profile: Assessing the impact of voice disorders on daily activities. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 44, 511–524.

Madden, R., Choi, C., Sykes, C. (2003). The ICF framework for national data: The introduction of the ICF into Australian data dictionaries. Disability and Rehabilitation, 25(11-12), 676–682.

Marshall, M. (2004) A study to elicit the core components of stroke rehabilitation and the subsequent development of a taxonomy of the therapy process. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Sheffield University.

McCooey,-O'Halloran R., Worrall, L., Hickson, L. (2004) Evaluating the role of speech-language pathology with patients with communication disability in the acute hospital setting, using the ICF. Journal of Medical Speech Language Pathology. 12(2), 49–58.

McLeod, S. (Ed.) (2007). The International Guide to Speech Acquisition. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning.

McLeod, S. (2006). The holistic view of a child with unintelligible speech: Insights from the ICF and ICF-CY. Advances in Speech-Language Pathology, 8(3).

McLeod, S., & Bleile, K (2004). The ICF: A framework for setting goals for children with speech impairment. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 20, 199–219.

McLeod (2004). Speech pathologists' application of the ICF to children with speech impairment. Advances in Speech-Language Pathology, 6(1), 75–81.

National Center for Health Statistics' North American Clearinghouse ICF newsletter.

O'Halloran, R., Worrall, L., Code, C., Toffolo, D., & Hickson, L. (2004). The Inpatient Functional Communication Interview. Oxon, UK: Speechmark.

Paul, D., Frattali, C., Holland, A, Thompson, C., Caperton, C., & Slater, S. (2004). Quality of Communication Life Scale. Rockville, MD: ASHA.

Penn, C. (2005). Who's tired of the WHO?: A commentary on Ross and Wertz, "Advancing appraisal: Aphasia and the WHO." Aphasiology, 19(9), 875–879.

Reed, G., Lux, J., Bufka, L., Trask, C., Peterson, D., Stark, S., Threats, T., T. Jacobson, J., and Hawley, J. (2005). Operationalizing the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in Clinical Settings. Rehabilitation Psychology, 50(2), 122–131.

Ripich, D., & Horner, J. (2004, April 27). The Neurodegenerative Dementias: Diagnosis and Interventions. The ASHA Leader, pp. 4–5, 14.

Ross, K. & Wertz, R. (2005). Advancing appraisal: Aphasia and the WHO. Aphasiology, 19(9), 860–870.

Ross, K. & Wertz, R. (2005). Who's for the WHO and who's not. Aphasiology. 19(9), 893–900.

Sasanuma, S., Itoh, M., Watamori, T., & Monoi, H. (in press). Rehabilitation of People with Aphasia. Tokyo: Igaku Shoin (In Japanese).

Simmons-Mackie, N, Threats, T., & Kagan, A. (2005). Outcome assessment in aphasia: A survey. Journal of Communication Disorders, 38, 1–27.

Simmons-Mackie, N. (2004). Cautiously embracing the ICF. Advances in Speech-Language Pathology, 6(1), 67–70.

Simmons-Mackie, N. (2004). Using the ICF framework to define outcomes. Perspectives on Neurophysiology and Neurogenic Speech and Language Disorders, 14(1), 9–11.

Smiley, D., Threats, T., Mowry, R., & Peterson, D. (2005). The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF): Implications for Deafness Rehabilitation Education, 19(2-3), 139–158.

Sohlberg, M., Avery, J., Kennedy, M. R. T., Coelho, C., Ylvisaker, M., Turkstra, L., & Yorkston, K. (2003). Practice guidelines for direct attention training. Journal of Medical Speech-Language Pathology, 11(3), xix–xxxix.

Sohlberg, M. M., Kennedy, M. R. T., Avery, J., Coelho, C., Turkstra, L., Ylvisaker, M., & Yorkston, K. (2007). Evidence based practice for the use of external aids as a memory rehabilitation technique. Journal of Medical Speech Pathology, 15(1).

" The Conceptual Framework of ASHA's New Scope of Practice for Speech-Language Pathology" by Travis Threats, PhD.

Threats, T. (2001). New classification will aid assessment and intervention. The ASHA Leader, 6(18), pp. 12–13.

Threats, T. (2002). Evidence-Based Practice Research Using a WHO Framework. Journal of Medical Speech-Language Pathology, 10(3), xvii–xxiv.

Threats, T. (2004). The use of ICF in intervention for persons with neurogenic communication disorders. Perspectives on Neurophysiology and Neurogenic Speech and Language Disorders, 14 (1), 4–8.

Threats, T. (2003) The framework for ASHA's revised Scope of Practice in Speech-Language Pathology. Speech Pathology Online. Accessed on 6-6-03.

Threats, T. (2004). The use of ICF in intervention for persons with neurogenic communication disorders. Perspectives on Neurophysiology and Neurogenic Speech and Language Disorders, 14 (1), 4–8.

Threats, T. (2005) Culturally sensitive care in the health care setting. Perspectives on communication disorders and sciences in culturally and linguistically diverse populations, 12(3), 3–5.

Threats, T. (2005). Exploring all aspects of the ICF framework with aphasia: A commentary on Ross and Wertz, "Advancing appraisal: Aphasia and the WHO." Aphasiology, 19(9), 879–885.

Threats, T. (2005). ICF and QOL: a partnership. Perspectives on Neurophysiology and Neurogenic Speech and Language Disorders, 15(4), 4–6.

Threats, T. (2006). Towards an international framework for communication disorders: Use of the ICF. Journal of Communication Disorders, 39, 251–265.

Threats, T. (2007). Acess for persons with neurogenic communication disorders: Influences of Personal and Environmental Factors of the ICF. Aphasiology, 21(1), 67–80.

Threats, T. & Worrall, L. (2004). Classifying communication disability using the ICF. Advances in Speech-Language Pathology, 6(1), 53–62.

Threats, T. & Worrall, L. (2004). ICF is all about the person, and more: A report to Duchan, Simmons-Mackie, Boles, and McLeod. Advances in Speech-Language Pathology, 6(1), 83–87.

Vickers, C. (2004). Communicating in groups: One stop on the road to improved participation for persons with aphasia. Perspectives on Neurophysiology and Neurogenic Speech and Language Disorders, 14(1), 16–20.

Watamori, T. (in press). Perspectives in neuropsychological rehabilitation. Japanese Journal of Neuropsychology. 21(1) (In Japanese).

World Health Organization. (2001). International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Geneva: Author.

Worrall, L. (2001). The social approach: another new fashion in speech-language pathology? Advances in Speech-Language Pathology, 3(1), 51–54.

Worrall, L. & Cruice, M. (2005). Why the WHO ICF and QOL constructs do not lend themselves to a programmatic appraisal for planning therapy for aphasia: A commentary on Ross and Wertz, "Advancing appraisal: Aphasia and the WHO." Aphasiology, 19(9), 885–893.

Worrall, L. & Frattali, C. (Eds). (2000). Neurogenic Communication Disorders: A Functional Approach. New York: Thieme Medical Publishers.

Worrall, L., McCooey, R., Davidson, B., Larkins, B., & Hickson, L. (2002). The validity of functional assessments of communication and the Activity/Participation components of the ICIDH-2: Do they reflect what really happens in real-life? Journal of Communication Disorders, 35(2), 107–137.

Worrall, L. & Hickson, L. (2003). Communication Disability in Aging: From Prevention to Intervention. Delmar Publishers.

Yaruss, J.,& Quesal, R. (2004). Stuttering and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF): An update. Journal of Communication Disorders 37(1), pp 35–52.

Yiu, E. M-L. & Ma, E. (2002) Voice activity limitation and participation restriction in the teaching profession: The need for preventive voice care. Journal of Medical Speech-Language Pathology, 10(1): 51–60.

Ylvisaker, M., Hanks, R., & Johnson-Greene, D. (2002). Perspectives on rehabilitation of individuals with cognitive impairment after brain injury: Rationale for reconsideration of theoretical paradigms. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 17(3), 191–209.

ICF-Ethics and Rights

Hurst, R. (2003) The International Disability Rights Movement and the ICF. Disability and Rehabilitation, 25 (11-12), 572–576.

Peterson, D. & Threats, T. (2005). Ethical and Clinical Implications of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Rehabilitation Education, 19(2-3), 129–138.

Threats, T. (2005) Clinical ethics in the ICF: Influences of competency and advocacy. Perspectives in Gerontology, 10(1), 8–10.

Threats, T. (2005, July 12). Active and Proactive-Boomers and the Health Care System. The ASHA Leader, 6–7, 18.

ICF-Public Health

Brundtland, G. (2002, April) Opening presentation to the WHO Conference on Health and Disability, Trieste, Italy.

Classifying and Reporting Functional Health Status [PDF] - A report from the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics.

Madden, R., Choi, C., Sykes, C. (2003). The ICF framework for national data: The introduction of the ICF into Australian data dictionaries. Disability and Rehabilitation, 25(11-12), 676–682.

National Center for Health Statistics' North American Clearinghouse ICF newsletter.

Special Editions of Journals Focused on the ICF

  • Disability and Rehabilitation (Volume 25, June 2003)
  • Disability and Rehabilitation (Volume 27, 2005)
  • Health Care Financing Review (Spring 2003, Volume 24, No. 3), available online.
  • International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, Volumes 1 and 2, 2008
  • Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, August 2004 Supplement
  • Rehabilitation Education, Volume 19, Number 2 and 3, 2005
  • Rehabilitation Psychology, Volume 50, Number 2, 2005
  • Seminars in Speech and Language, Volume 4, 2007

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