Glossary

Agnosia
Inability to recognize sensory stimuli (sounds, objects, people, smells) despite relatively intact memory and sensory systems.
Agraphia
An acquired disorder characterized by impairment or loss of the ability to write.
Alexia
An acquired disorder characterized by difficulty reading and understanding printed language.
Anomia
A condition characterized by difficulty retrieving words; individuals with anomia often use circumlocution (wordy and indirect language) to express an idea when unable to retrieve the desired word or words.
Anomic Aphasia
A mild form of aphasia, with the most prominent difficulty being in word-finding with the patient using generic fillers in utterances, such as nonspecific nouns and pronouns (e.g., "thing"), or circumlocution, where the person describes the intended word. Comprehension and repetition of words and sentences is typically good; however, the patient may not always recognize that a word successfully retrieved is the correct word, indicating some difficulty with word recognition.
Aphasia
An acquired neurogenic language disorder resulting from an injury to the brain that affects all language modalities. Aphasia is not a single disorder, but instead a family of disorders that involve varying degrees of impairment in four primary areas: spoken language expression, spoken language comprehension, written expression, and reading comprehension. A person with aphasia often has relatively intact nonlinguistic cognitive skills, such as memory and executive function skills, although these and other cognitive deficits may co-occur with aphasia.
Apraxia of Speech
A disorder of motor planning in the absence of impaired muscle control that affects voluntary positioning and sequencing of muscle movements for speech.
Audiology Assistant
A person who-after appropriate training and demonstration of competency-performs designated tasks that are prescribed, directed, and supervised by an ASHA-certified and licensed audiologist. Audiology assistants go by a variety of job titles, including, but not limited to, audiologist assistant, audiometry assistant, audiometrist assistant, audiologic assistant, audiology support personnel, audioprosthologist assistant, audiometrics assistant, hearing therapy assistant, hearing therapist assistant, hearing clinic assistant, hearing center assistant, hearing aid audiologist assistant, teleaudiology clinical technicians or any variation, synonym, coinage, or other word that expresses, employs, or implies these terms, names, or functions. Differing levels of support personnel may exist within and across work settings, states, or organizations.
Broca's Aphasia
A type of nonfluent aphasia, so called because speech production is halting and effortful. Damage is typically in the anterior portion of the left hemisphere. The dominant feature is agrammatism (impaired syntax). Content words (nouns, verbs) may be preserved but sentences are difficult to produce due to the problems with grammar, resulting in "telegraphic speech." In its more severe form, spoken utterances may be reduced to single words. Comprehension is usually mildly to moderately impaired due to difficulty understanding complex grammar, but it can be within normal limits. Repetition of words and sentences is usually poor.
Caseload
Refers to the number of students with Individualized Education Programs (IEPs), Individualized Family Service Plans (IFSPs), or 504 Plans that school SLPs serve through direct and/or indirect service delivery options. In some school districts, SLP caseloads may also include students who do not have identified disabilities and who receive intervention and other services within general education designed to help prevent future difficulties with language learning and literacy. Caseloads can also be quantified in terms of the number of intervention sessions in a given time frame.
Conduction Aphasia
A type of fluent aphasia with a prominent impairment with repetition. Damage typically involves the arcuate fasciculus and the left parietal region. The patient may be able to express him- or herself fairly well, with some word-finding issues, and comprehension can be functional. However, the patient will show significant difficulty repeating phrases, particularly as the phrases increase in length and complexity and as they stumble over words they are attempting to pronounce. This type of aphasia is rare.
Council for Accreditation in Occupational Hearing Conservation (CAOHC)
A joint council whose main objective is to provide education, information, and guidance to industry and those serving industry regarding the successful implementation of an occupational hearing conservation program. It seeks to prevent occupational hearing loss.
Crossed Aphasia
A type of aphasia that occurs when a person's language centers are not in the expected hemisphere. In most right-handed individuals, language centers are located in the left hemisphere. This is also true for a majority of left-handed people, although there are exceptions for both groups. An example of crossed aphasia would be a right-handed person who has a right hemisphere stroke that results in aphasia.
Direct Supervision
Direct supervision means onsite, in-view observation and guidance by an SLP while an assigned activity is performed by support personnel.
Dysarthria
A neurological motor speech disorder affecting the strength, range of motion, speed, and precision of the speech musculature.
Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)
A term used in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) to refer to the right of all students, regardless of disability, to have access to free and appropriate public education.
Global Aphasia
A type of nonfluent aphasia with severe impairment of both expressive and receptive skills. Usually associated with a large left hemisphere lesion. People are often alert and may be able to express themselves through facial expressions, intonation, and gestures.
Hemianopia or Visual Field Cut
Decreased vision or blindness in half of the visual field of one or both eyes.
Hemorrhagic
Profuse bleeding from a weakened blood vessel that ruptures and bleeds into surrounding tissue.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA)
A U.S. federal law that governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention, special education, and related services to children with disabilities.
Individualized Education Program (IEP)
Mandated by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA). An IEP is a document that defines the individualized objectives of a child who has been identified as having a disability and specifies individualized goals.
Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP)
A plan for special services for young children from birth to 3 years of age with disabilities. The goals that are put into place within an IFSP are targeted toward the family versus the goals within an IEP, which are targeted specifically towards the student.
Indirect Supervision
Indirect supervision means those activities (other than direct observation and guidance) conducted by an SLP that may include demonstration, record review, review and evaluation of audio- or videotaped sessions, and/or interactive television.
Ischemic
A decrease in blood supply to an organ or tissue caused by constriction or blockage of blood vessels.
Jargon
Incoherent but structurally intact speech that may be composed of neologisms (invented words) or incoherently arranged known words.
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
Refers to the right of children with disabilities to be educated with children who are not disabled and not be removed from the regular educational environment. Special classes or separate schooling should occurs only when the nature or severity of the disability of a child is such that education in regular classes with supplementary aids and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily.
Limb Apraxia
A disorder of motor planning in the absence of impaired muscle control that affects voluntary positioning and sequencing of muscle movements of the limbs. 
Mixed Transcortical Aphasia
A combination of the two transcortical aphasias where both reception and expression are severely impaired but repetition remains intact.
Plan of Care (Treatment Plan)
This terminology is meant to include, but not be limited to, the "Plan of Care," "Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP)," or "Individualized Education Program (IEP)" and other titles that outline the care of the patient/client.
Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA)
A focal dementia (or focal cortical atrophy syndrome) characterized by gradual loss of language function in the context of relatively well-preserved memory, visual processing, and personality until the advanced stages. Symptoms usually begin with word-finding problems and progress to impaired grammar (syntax) and comprehension (sentence processing and semantics). Symptoms associated with impaired speech production, such as dysarthria and apraxia of speech, can also accompany PPA. Typically, a diagnosis of PPA is made following a 2-year decline in language function not accompanied by any marked decline in other cognitive functions. (However, a 2-year hiatus in making a definitive diagnosis should not delay proactive management of the aphasia and general life planning.) Structural and physiological abnormalities are typically noted only in the left hemisphere language-related cortices (i.e., frontal, parietal, and temporal regions). PPA is not due to neoplastic, vascular, or metabolic etiologies nor to infectious disease (Mesulam, 2001; Rogers, 2004).
Response to Intervention (RTI)
Integrates assessment and intervention within a multi-level prevention system to maximize student achievement and reduce behavior problems. Students are identified as being at risk for poor learning outcomes. These students are monitored for progress and provided with appropriate interventions, which are adjusted based on the student's responsiveness.
Screening
This pass-fail procedure is used to identify people who may require further assessment.
Speech-Language Pathology Aides/Technician
Aides or technicians are individuals who have completed on-the-job training, workshops, and so forth and work under the direct supervision of ASHA-certified SLPs.
Speech Language Pathology Assistant
SLPAs are individuals who, following academic course work, clinical practicum, and credentialing, can perform tasks prescribed, directed, and supervised by ASHA-certified SLPs.
Subcortical Aphasia
A form of aphasia that results from damage to subcortical regions such as the thalamus, internal capsule, and the basal ganglia. The symptoms can mirror those arising from cortical lesions, and subcortical damage can also co-occur with cortical lesions. Aphasic symptoms can arise from diaschisis (remote effects), such as subcortical inputs to the frontal lobe being altered, or may directly stem from damage to subcortical areas that support language processing.
Supervising Speech-Language Pathologist
The supervising SLP is certified by ASHA and licensed by the state (where applicable), has been practicing for at least 2 years following ASHA certification, has completed not less than ten (10) hours of continuing professional development in supervision training prior to supervision of an SLPA, and is licensed and/or credentialed by the state (where applicable).
Teleaudiology Clinical Technicians
Persons who, after appropriate training and demonstration of competency, provide patient/equipment interface support under the supervision of an ASHA-certified and licensed audiologist using secure real time and/or "store and forward" audio/video technology to deliver audiology services from a site located at a distance from the actual patient testing site. A TCT may also be an audiology assistant or other health care professional (e.g., licensed vocational nurse, bachelor's-prepared nurse, master's prepared nurse, nurse practitioner, physician assistant, etc.) who has additional training to serve in the role as a TCT and support teleaudiology service delivery under the supervision of an ASHA-certified and licensed audiologist.
Transcortical Motor
A type of nonfluent aphasia similar to Broca's aphasia, but again with strong repetition skills. The patient may have difficulty spontaneously answering a question but can repeat long utterances without difficulty.
Transcortical Sensory
A type of fluent aphasia similar to Wernicke's with the exception of a strong ability to repeat words and phrases. The patient may repeat questions rather than answer them ("echolalia").
Wernicke's Aphasia
A type of fluent aphasia. Damage is typically in the posterior portion of the left hemisphere. Comprehension is poor and the person often produces jargon, or nonsensical words and phrases, when attempting to speak. These utterances typically retain sentence structure and intonation but lack meaning. The person is usually unaware of how they are speaking and may continue to talk even when they should pause to allow others to speak ("press of speech"). Repetition of words and sentences is poor.
Workload
Refers to all activities required and performed by school-based SLPs. SLP workloads include considerable time for face-to-face direct services to students. Workload also includes many other activities necessary to support students' education programs, implement best practices for school speech-language services, and ensure compliance with IDEA and other mandates.

Content Disclaimer: The Practice Resource Project, ASHA policy documents, and guidelines contain information for use in all settings; however, members must consider all applicable local, state and federal requirements when applying the information in their specific work setting.