American Speech-Language-Hearing Association

Technical report

Graduate Curriculum on Swallowing and Swallowing Disorders (Adult and Pediatric Dysphagia)

Special Interest Division 13: Swallowing and Swallowing Disorders
(Dysphagia)


About this Document

This curriculum was revised by members of the American Speech-Language Hearing Association (ASHA) Special Interest Division 13: Swallowing and Swallowing Disorders (Dysphagia) 2006 Steering Committee: Caryn Easterling and Cathy Lazarus (committee cochairs), Elizabeth Andrews, Rita Bailey, Dan Gaskell, Tessa Goldsmith, Steve Gorsek, and Adrienne Perlman. Michelle Ferketic, ASHA's Director, Special Interest Divisions and International Liaison Programs, provided technical assistance. The activity was monitored by Division 13 Steering Committee Liaison Catriona Steele. Other members of the 2006 Special Interest Division 13 Steering Committee are Nancy Swigert (coordinator); Lynn Brady-Wagner, Maureen Lefton-Greif, and Luis Riquelme (associate coordinator). The Steering Committee is monitored by the monitoring VP for Professional Practices in Speech-Language Pathology, Brian Schulman.



Introduction

Approximately 87% of the respondents to ASHA's 2005 Health Care Survey in Speech-Language Pathology (ASHA, 2005) indicated that they were the primary providers of dysphagia services in their facilities. In the same survey, 16% of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) working in health care settings reported that they provide dysphagia services to infants and/or children. Results of the 2003 Omnibus Survey (ASHA, 2003) also indicated that 13.8% of SLPs practicing in the schools now treat children with dysphagia. Diagnosis and treatment of swallowing disorders are included in the SLPs' scope of practice (ASHA, 2001). Graduate programs must respond to the education and training demands implicit in this scope of practice and provide students with knowledge and skills required to effectively evaluate and treat dysphagia across a variety of populations and practice settings.

In the fields of speech-language pathology and audiology, graduate programs are accredited by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) Council on Academic Accreditation (CAA). New standards for certification that were recently developed for speech-language pathology and audiology graduate training programs required implementation in calendar year 2004 (CAA, 2001). Consequently, accredited programs have realigned their curricula with the new standards. Whereas the old standards were process-based, the new standards are outcome-based.

The new standards required a realignment of the Graduate Curriculum on Swallowing and Swallowing Disorders (Adult and Pediatric Dysphagia) to include behaviorally defined levels of achievement. The standards now include outcomes and benchmarks that correspond to the new certification standards. This change will likely require many university programs to adapt their traditional instructional practices and assessment procedures to meet the new outcomes-based standards.

This updated version of the Graduate Curriculum on Swallowing and Swallowing Disorders (Adult and Pediatric Dysphagia) reflects these changes as well as the expansion of the knowledge base in this critical area of clinical practice. The revised curriculum, with its outline and references, can serve as a model for university programs. Because the development of any course is unique to the instructor and the academic institution, the Division on Swallowing and Swallowing Disorders has attempted to provide this material in a format that will allow instructors to design their own curricula. New and important work in swallowing continues to be published; therefore, the references should not be regarded as an exhaustive list, but instead as a resource to be updated by each instructor as appropriate. Included in the reference sections are classic and theoretical summaries for the more advanced graduate seminar, as well as basic texts, journal articles, and treatment manuals for the clinical components and the basic practitioner. The reference lists are divided into three sections, general dysphagia references, adult dysphagia references, and pediatric dysphagia references; each is organized by topic.

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References

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2003). 2003 Omnibus survey caseload report: SLP. Available from www.asha.org/members/research/omnibus/2003OmnibusSurvey.htm.

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2001). Scope of practice in speech-language pathology. Available from www.asha.org/policy.

American Speech-Language-Hearing-Association. (2005). SLP health care survey 2005: Caseload characteristics. Available from www.asha.org/Research/memberdata/HealthcareSurvey/.

Council on Academic Accreditation in Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology (CAA) and Council for Clinical Certification in Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology (CFCC). (2001). Guidelines for developing formative assessment plans for implementation of new standards for the certificate of clinical competence. Available from www.asha.org/academic/accreditation/caa_formative_assess/.

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Lecture Topics

  1. Normal aerodigestive tract

    1. Anatomy

      1. Oral

      2. Pharyngeal

      3. Laryngeal

      4. Esophageal

      5. Respiratory

    2. Sensory innervation and motor control

      1. Cortical

      2. Subcortical

      3. Peripheral

    3. Biomechanics

      1. Bolus preparation

      2. Bolus propulsion

      3. Airway protection

      4. Respiratory-swallow coordination

    4. Development and maturation

      1. Suckling, sucking, swallowing, and chewing

        1. Prenatal

        2. Neonatal

        3. Infant

        4. Toddler

        5. Young child

        6. Mature sensorimotor system

        7. Elderly

  2. Abnormal swallowing

    1. Etiology and conditions

      1. Neurogenic

        1. Stroke

        2. Dementia

        3. Neurodegenerative disorders

        4. Brain tumor

        5. Spinal cord injuries

        6. Traumatic brain injury

      2. Structural

        1. Head and neck cancer and treatment effects

        2. Zenker's diverticulum

        3. Cervical neck disease

        4. Cricopharyngeal hypertrophy

      3. Iatrogenic

        1. Tracheostomy and/or ventilator issues

        2. Drug induced

        3. Postsurgical

      4. Psychiatric or behavioral

        1. Globus pharyngeus

        2. Delirium

        3. ETOH related

      5. Systemic

        1. Myositis

        2. HIV/AIDS

        3. Esophageal causes

    2. Signs and symptoms observed clinically and instrumentally

      1. Protracted mastication

      2. Impaired oral sensation

      3. Oral incontinence/drooling

      4. Nasal regurgitation

      5. Uncontrolled bolus flow into pharynx

      6. Abnormal swallow onset

      7. Laryngeal penetration and laryngeal secretions

      8. Aspiration

      9. Pharyngeal residue and stasis

      10. Retrograde bolus flow

      11. Esophageal considerations

    3. Areas of impairment in instrumentally measured pathophysiology of swallowing in adults

      1. Bolus formation/propulsion

      2. Swallow initiation and coordination

      3. Airway protection

      4. Swallow duration

      5. Respiratory swallow coordination

      6. Pharyngeal clearance

      7. Esophageal components

    4. Consequences of swallowing impairment

      1. Aspiration and pneumonia

      2. Malnutrition

  3. Assessment

    1. History

      1. Name, age, sex

      2. Referring diagnosis

      3. Primary diagnosis/current medical status

      4. Past medical history

        1. Pertinent medical conditions (including any GI issues)

        2. Pertinent speech, language, cognition

        3. Pertinent developmental history (pediatric)

          1. Fine and gross motor

          2. Neurodevelopmental milestones

          3. State/organization

          4. Feeding development

      5. Pertinent diagnostic examinations

      6. Psychosocial history

        1. Level of independence

          1. Support system

        2. Cultural issues/special needs

        3. Education/employment

      7. Current diet/nutritional status

        1. Food texture and liquid consistency

        2. Include dietary restrictions/food allergies

        3. Frequency/duration (pediatric)

        4. Anthropometric measures (pediatric)

    2. Noninstrumental examination

      1. Cognition/state

        1. Level of alertness

        2. Readiness for oral intake

        3. Auditory and visual acuity

      2. Position/posture

        1. Seating

        2. Positioning equipment/adaptive equipment

      3. Pulmonary/respiratory status

        1. Auscultation (e.g., cervical/laryngeal/thoracic)

      4. Multisystem sensorimotor examination (oral mechanism examination)

        1. Structure/function of:

          1. Head/neck

          2. Lips/cheeks

          3. Tongue

          4. Palate/velum

          5. Oropharynx/pharynx

          6. Larynx

          7. Dentition/jaw

        2. Reflexes

        3. Sensation (sensory awareness)

      5. Clinical “hands on” swallowing examination

        1. Liquids

          1. Equipment (bottle, cup, straw, etc.)

          2. Oral phase (components)

          3. Pharyngeal/laryngeal phase (components)

          4. Consistencies administered

            1. Thin, nectar, honey, pudding

        2. Purees

          1. Oral phase

          2. Pharyngeal/laryngeal phase

        3. Mechanical soft

          1. Oral phase

          2. Pharyngeal/laryngeal phase

        4. Regular solids

          1. Oral phase

          2. Pharyngeal/laryngeal phase

        5. Observations

          1. Self-feeding/feeding

            1. Level of assistance

          2. Positioning needs

          3. Clinical signs of dysphagia/aspiration

          4. Patient/caregiver/staff interactions

          5. Compensatory swallowing and/or feeding modifications

            1. Equipment/utensils

          6. Duration and volume of feeding (pediatric)

      6. Impressions (assessment)

        1. Diagnostic statement

        2. Strengths and weaknesses

        3. Prognosis

      7. Recommendations

        1. Oral vs. non-oral

        2. Best textures/consistencies to meet nutritional needs orally (if feasible)

        3. Further testing or workup indicated

      8. Special considerations indicated for evaluation of tracheostomy and ventilator-dependent patients

      9. Special considerations indicated for evaluation of neonates and infants

    3. Instrumental examination

      1. Videofluoroscopy

        1. Definition and rationale

        2. Procedure/protocol

        3. Findings and interpretation

        4. Advantages and disadvantages

        5. Radiation safety procedure

      2. Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES)

        1. Definition and rationale

        2. Procedure/protocol

        3. Findings and interpretation

        4. Advantages and disadvantages

      3. Pharyngeal manometry/manofluorography

        1. Definition and rationale

        2. Procedure/protocol

        3. Findings and interpretation

        4. Advantages and disadvantages

      4. Ultrasonography

        1. Definition and rationale

        2. Procedure/protocol

        3. Findings and interpretation

        4. Advantages and disadvantages

      5. Scintigraphy

        1. Definition and rationale

        2. Procedure/protocol

        3. Findings and interpretation

        4. Advantages and disadvantages

      6. Electromyography

        1. Definition and rationale

        2. Procedure/protocol

        3. Findings and interpretation

        4. Advantages and disadvantages

      7. Other medical diagnostic procedures

        1. Upper gastrointestinal series (upper GI)

        2. Esophagram

        3. Esophageal manometry

        4. pH probe

        5. CT

        6. MRI

        7. Laryngoscopy

          1. Flexible

          2. Rigid

        8. Bronchoscopy

        9. Esophagoduodenoscopy (EGD)

  4. Management of dysphagia

    1. Treatment planning

      1. Nutrition/hydration status

        1. Means of nutrition

        2. Types of nutrition

        3. Nutritional risk

      2. Management strategies

      3. Treatment candidacy and prognosis

      4. Other referrals

      5. Patient/caregiver/team education

      6. Discharge planning

    2. Clinical management

      1. Swallowing maneuvers

      2. Compensatory postures and positioning

      3. Bolus modification

      4. Adaptive equipment

      5. Physiotherapeutic exercises

      6. Sensory augmentation

      7. Biofeedback

    3. Prosthetic management

    4. Surgical/medical management

    5. Treatment risks, benefits, and complications

    6. Non-oral feeding

    7. Counseling families and patients regarding diagnosis and treatment planning

  5. Documentation

    1. Assessment

    2. Progress notes and treatment outcomes

    3. Reimbursement eligibility

    4. Discharge summary

  6. Ethical Issues

    1. Ethical principles

      1. Beneficence

      2. Nonmaleficence

      3. Autonomy

      4. Justice and fidelity

    2. Patient rights

      1. Right to predetermine medical treatment limits

      2. Right to discontinue or refuse treatment

      3. Right to refuse to follow swallowing safety recommendations

    3. SLP responsibilities

      1. Determination of efficacious treatment approaches

      2. Responsibility to educate/explain potential risks and outcomes

      3. Responsibility to accept patient/family decisions

      4. Responsibility to advocate for treatment or no treatment

      5. Responsibility to continue or discontinue treatment

    4. Family/caregiver rights

      1. “Living will”

      2. Power of attorney

      3. Parental rights

    5. Societal issues

      1. “Right to die” and end of life

        1. Withholding or providing nutrition: moral/ethical/religious concerns

        2. Legal issues and tube feeding

        3. Caregiver burden

      2. Degenerative and/or terminal diseases and treatment

        1. Dementia

        2. Cancer

        3. Other diseases

      3. Economic considerations

        1. Provider

        2. Insurer

        3. Public

          1. Medicare

          2. Medicaid

        4. Individual

  7. Efficacy

    1. Utilizing research to support treatment techniques

    2. “Fads” and trends in treatment approaches

    3. Evidence-based practice

      1. ASHA NOMS

      2. Functional communication measures

      3. Other

    4. Safety

      1. Treatment approaches

      2. Trials of oral feeding with individuals who are “NPO”

      3. “Free water” protocols

  8. Models of delivery

    1. Dysphagia program and implementation

    2. Team approach

    3. Family, staff, patient education

    4. Service delivery models

    5. Multidisciplinary interactions (acute care and long-term care)

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Course Didactic Content

This is a suggested introductory course lecture outline with suggested references to be used. This should provide a knowledge base to engage in a clinical practicum in swallowing.

Lecture outline: Refer to outline of graduate-level course with suggested references.

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Clinical Observations (Direct or Taped)/ Swallow Lab

These are suggested activities to be added to a graduate-level swallowing course.

  1. Interpretation of archived imaging studies

  2. Hands-on training and demonstration in screening, diagnostic, and treatment techniques with adults and children (i.e., sEMG, IOPI, FEES)

  3. Report writing

  4. Observation: at least three cases as part of the graduate course. Observations should include at least one instrumental, one noninstrumental evaluation, and one treatment session (adult and pediatric case). Individuals should be exposed to as many treatment sites and team interactions as possible, including a variety of medical and educational settings.

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Graduate-Level Clinical Practicum

Suggested time: 60 clinical hours, to include diagnostic and treatment activities with an experienced certified clinician in a medical, nursing, special education, or rehabilitation setting. Whereas 60 hours is suggested, programs will need to determine their own criteria. These are suggested guidelines but are not requirements.

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References

Dysphagia is a multidisciplinary field; therefore readings and other educational materials should be selected from among such relevant disciplines as dentistry, engineering, geriatrics, internal medicine, gastroenterology, neurology, nursing, nutrition, otolaryngology, pediatrics, physiology, pulmonology, radiology, rehabilitation medicine, and speech-language pathology.

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General References for Dysphagia

General Textbooks

Arvedson, J. C., & Brodsky, L. (2001). Pediatric swallowing and feeding: Assessment and management (2nd ed.). San Diego, CA: Thomson Delmar Learning.

Carl, L., & Johnson, P. (2005). Drugs and dysphagia: How medications can affect eating and swallowing. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Carpenter, M. B. (1991). Core text of neuroanatomy (4th ed., pp. 134–181). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

Castell, D. O., & Richter, J. E. (Eds.). (2003). The esophagus (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.

Corbin-Lewis, K., Liss, J. M., & Sciortino, K. L. (2005). Clinical anatomy and physiology of the swallow mechanism. San Diego, CA: Thomson Delmar Learning.

Dikeman, K. J., & Kazandjian, M. S. (2002). Communication and swallowing management of tracheostomized and ventilator dependent patients (2nd ed.). San Diego, CA: Thomson Delmar Learning.

Fornataro-Clerici, L., & Roop, T. (1997). Clinical management of adults requiring tracheostomy tubes and ventilators. Gaylord, MI: Northern Speech.

Groher, M. E. (Ed.). (1997). Dysphagia: Diagnosis and management (3rd ed.). Stoneham, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Huckabee, M. L., & Pelletier, C. A. (Eds.). (1999). Management of adult neurogenic dysphagia. San Diego, CA: Singular.

Jones, B. (Ed.). (2002). Normal and abnormal swallowing (2nd ed.). New York: Springer.

Logemann, J. A. (1998). Evaluation and treatment of swallowing disorders (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Mills, R. H. (2000). Evaluation of dysphagia in adults: Expanding the diagnostic options. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Murdoch, B. (2001). Traumatic brain injury: Associated speech, language and swallowing disorders. San Diego, CA: Singular.

Murray, J. (1998). Manual of dysphagia assessment in adults. San Diego, CA: Singular.

Murry, T., Carrau, R., Carrau, R., & Hegde, M. N. (2006). Clinical management of swallowing disorders (2nd ed.). San Diego, CA: Plural.

Netter, F. H. (1975). CIBA collection of medical illustrations. Digestive system part 1: Upper digestive tract. Summit, NJ: R. R. Donnelly & Sons.

Perlman, A. L., & Schulze-Delrieu, K. (Eds.). (1997). Deglutition and its disorders. San Diego, CA: Singular.

Sonies, B. C. (1997). Dysphagia: A continuum of care. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen.

Sullivan, P. A., & Guilford, A. (1999). Swallowing intervention in oncology. San Diego, CA: Singular.

Tippett, D. C. (Ed.). (2000). Tracheostomy and ventilator dependency: Management of breathing, speaking and swallowing. New York: Thieme.

Tuchman, D., & Walter, R. (1994). Disorders of feeding and swallowing in infants and children. San Diego, CA: Singular.

Yorkston, K., Miller, R, & Strand, E. (2004). Management of speech and swallowing in degenerative diseases (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

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Professional Guidelines Relating to Dysphagia Management

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (1987, April). Report of the ad hoc committee on dysphagia. ASHA, 29(4), 57–58.

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (1992). Instrumental diagnostic procedures for swallowing. Available from www.asha.org/policy.

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2000). Clinical indicators for instrumental assessment of dysphagia [Guidelines].. Available from www.asha.org/policy.

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2001). Roles of speech-language pathologists in swallowing and feeding disorders: Technical report. Available from www.asha.org/policy.

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2002). Knowledge and skills for speech-language pathologists performing endoscopic assessment of swallowing functions. Available from www.asha.org/policy.

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2002). Knowledge and skills needed by speech-language pathologists providing services to individuals with swallowing and/or feeding disorders. Available from www.asha.org/policy.

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2002). Roles of speech-language pathologists in swallowing and feeding disorders: Position statement. Available from www.asha.org/policy.

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2004). Guidelines for speech-language pathologists performing videofluoroscopic swallowing studies. Available from www.asha.org/policy.

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2004). Knowledge and skills needed by speech-language pathologists performing videofluoroscopic swallowing studies. Available from www.asha.org/policy.

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2004). Role of the speech-language pathologist in the performance and interpretation of endoscopic evaluation of swallowing: Guidelines. Available from www.asha.org/policy.

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2005). The role of the speech-language pathologist in the performance and interpretation of endoscopic evaluation of swallowing: Position statement. Available from www.asha.org/policy.

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2005). The role of the speech-language pathologist in the performance and interpretation of endoscopic evaluation of swallowing: Technical report. Available from www.asha.org/policy.

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association National Outcomes Measurement System (NOMS). (1998). Adult speech-language pathology training manual. Rockville, MD: Author.

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association National Outcomes Measurement System (NOMS). (2000). Prekindergarten speech-language pathology users guide. Rockville, MD: Author.

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Journals

  • Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  • Annals of Otolaryngology, Rhinology and Otology

  • Archives of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery

  • Dysphagia Journal

  • Gastroenterology

  • Journal of the American Geriatric Society

  • Journal of Head and Neck Cancer

  • Journal of Medical Speech-Language Pathology

  • Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition

  • Journal of Physiology

  • Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research

  • Neurology

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References for Adult Dysphagia

Articles

Normal Swallowing

Bosma, J. F. (1957). Deglutition: Pharyngeal stage. Physiological Reviews, 37, 275–300.

Bosma, J. F. (1973). Physiology of the mouth, pharynx and esophagus. In M. Paparella & D. Shumrick (Eds.), Otolaryngology-Basic sciences and related disciplines (Vol. 1, pp. 356–370). Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.

Borgström, P. S., & Ekberg, O. (1988). Speed of peristalsis in pharyngeal constrictor musculature: Correlation to age. Dysphagia, 2, 140–144.

Bowman, J. P., & Combs, C. M. (1968). Discharge patterns of lingual spindle afferent fibers in the hypoglossal nerve of the Rhesus monkey. Experimental Neurology, 21, 105–119.

Cook, I. J., Dodds, W. J., Dantas, R. O., Kern, M. K., Massey, B. T., Shaker, R., & Hogan, W. J. (1989). Timing of videofluoroscopic, manometric events, and bolus transit during the oral and pharyngeal phases of swallowing. Dysphagia, 4, 8–15.

Dantas, R. O., Kern, M. K., Massey, B. T., Dodds, W. J., Kahrilas, P. J., Brasseur, J., et al. (1990). Effect of swallowed bolus variables on oral and pharyngeal phases of swallowing. American Journal of Physiology, 258, 675–681.

Dodds, W. J., Logemann, J. A., & Stewart, E. T. (1990). Physiology and radiology of normal oral and pharyngeal phases of swallowing. American Journal of Roentgenology, 154, 953–963.

Dodds, W. J., Man, K. M., Cook, I. J., Kahrilas, P.J., Stewart, E. T., & Kern, M. J. (1988). Influence of bolus volume on swallow-induced hyoid movement in normal subjects. American Journal of Roentgenology, 150, 1302–1309.

Dooley, C. P., Di Lorenzo, C., & Valenzuela, J. E. (1990). Esophageal function in humans: Effects of bolus consistency and temperature. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 35, 167–172.

Jacob, P., Kahrilas, P. J., Logemann, J. A., Shah, V., & Ha, T. (1989). Upper esophageal sphincter opening and modulation during swallowing. Gastroenterology, 97, 1469–1478.

Kahrilas, P. J., Dodds, W. J., Dent, J., Logemann, J. A., & Shaker, R. (1988). Upper esophageal sphincter function during deglution. Gastroenterology, 95, 52–62.

Kahrilas, P. J., Lin, S., Logemann, J. A., Ergun, G. A., & Facchini, F. (1993). Deglutitive tongue action: Volume accommodation and bolus propulsion. Gastroenterology, 104, 152–162.

Kim, C. H., Hsu, J. J., O'Connor, M. K., Weaver, A. L., Brown, M. L., & Zinsmeister, A. R. (1994). Effect of viscosity on oropharyngeal and esophageal emptying in man. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 39, 189–192.

Klahn, M. S., & Perlman, A. L. (1999). Temporal and durational patterns associating respiration and swallowing. Dysphagia, 14, 131–138.

Logemann, J. A., Kahrilas, P. J., Cheng, J., Pauloski, B. R., Gibbons, P. J., Rademaker, A. W., & Lin, S. (1992). Closure mechanisms of the laryngeal vestibule during swallow. American Journal of Physiology, 262, G338–G344.

Martin-Harris, B., Brodsky, M. B., Price, C. C., Michel, Y., & Walters, B. (2003). Temporal coordination of pharyngeal and laryngeal dynamics with breathing during swallowing: Single liquid swallows. Journal of Applied Physiology, 94, 1735–1743.

Martin-Harris, B., Michel, Y., & Castell, D. O. (2005). Physiologic model of oropharyngeal swallowing revisited. Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, 133, 234–240.

McConnel, F. M. (1988). Analysis of pressure generation and bolus transit during pharyngeal swallowing. Laryngoscope, 98, 71–78.

McConnel, F. M., Cerenko, D., & Mendelsohn, M. S. (1988). Manofluorographic analysis of swallowing. Otolaryngological Clinics of North America, 21, 625–637.

Miller, A. J. (1982). Deglutition. Physiological Reviews, 62, 129–184.

Miller, J. L., & Watkin, K. L. (1996). The influence of bolus volume and viscosity on anterior lingual force during the oral stage of swallowing. Dysphagia, 11, 117–124.

Nicosia, M. A., & Robbins, J. A. (2001). The fluid mechanics of bolus ejection from the oral cavity. Journal of Biomechanics, 34, 1537–1544.

Palmer, J. B., Rudin, N. J., Lara, G., & Crompton, A. W. (1992). Coordination of mastication and swallowing. Dysphagia, 7, 187–200.

Perlman, A. L., He, X., Barkmeier, J., & Van Leer, E. (2005). Bolus location associated with videofluoroscopic and respirodeglutometric events. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 48, 21–33.

Pouderoux, P., & Kahrilas, P. J. (1995). Deglutitive tongue force modulation by volition, volume, and viscosity in humans. Gastroenterology, 108, 1418–1426.

Shaker, R., Cook, I. J., Dodds, W. J., & Hogan, W. J. (1988). Pressure flow dynamics of the oral phase of swallowing. Dysphagia, 3, 79–84.

Sonies, B. C., Parent, L. J., Morrish, K., & Baum, B. J. (1988). Durational aspects of the oral-pharyngeal phase of swallow in normal adults. Dysphagia, 3, 1–10.

Zald, D. H., & Pardo, J. (1999). The functional neuroanatomy of voluntary swallowing. Annals of Neurology, 46, 281–286.

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Normal Swallowing Across the Adult Life Span

Crow, H. C., & Ship, J. A. (1996). Tongue strength and endurance in different aged individuals. Journals of Gerontology, 51, M247–M250.

Dejaeger, E., Pelemans, W., Bibau, G., & Ponette, E. (1994). Manofluorographic analysis of swallowing in the elderly. Dysphagia, 9, 156–161.

Dejaeger, E., Pelemans, W., Ponette, E., & Joosten, E. (1997). Mechanisms involved in postdeglutition retention in the elderly. Dysphagia, 12, 63–67.

Hiss, S. G., Strauss, M., Treole, K., Stuart, A., & Boutilier, S. (2004). Effects of age, gender, bolus volume, bolus viscosity, and gustation on swallowing apnea onset relative to lingual bolus propulsion onset in normal adults. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 47, 572–583.

Hiss, S. G., Treole, K., & Stuart, A. (2001). Effects of age, gender, bolus volume and trial on swallowing apnea duration and swallow/respiratory phase relationships of normal adults. Dysphagia, 16, 128–135.

Logemann, J. A., Pauloski, B. R., Rademaker, A. W., Colangelo, L. A., Kahrilas, P. J., & Smith, C. H. (2000). Temporal and biomechanical characteristics of oropharyngeal swallow in younger and older men. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 43, 1264–1274.

Logemann, J. A., Pauloski, B. R., Rademaker, A. W., & Kahrilas, P. J. (2002). Oropharyngeal swallow in younger and older women: Videofluoroscopic analysis. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 45, 434–445.

Martin-Harris, B., Brodsky, M. B., Michel, Y., Ford, C. L., Walters, B., & Heffner, J. (2005). Breathing and swallowing dynamics across the adult lifespan. Archives of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, 131, 762–770.

Nicosia, M. A., Hind, J. A., Roecker, E. B., Carnes, M., Doyle, J., Dengel, G. A., & Robbins, J. (2000). Age effects on the temporal evolution of isometric and swallowing pressure. Journal of Gerontology, 55, M634–M640.

Perlman, A. L., Schultz, J. G., & VanDaele, D. J. (1993). Effects of age, gender, bolus volume, and bolus viscosity on oropharyngeal pressure during swallowing. Journal of Applied Physiology, 75, 33–37.

Rademaker, A. W., Pauloski, B. R., Colangelo, L. A., & Logemann, J. A. (1998). Age and volume effects on liquid swallowing function in normal women. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 41, 275–284.

Robbins, J., Levine, R., Wood, J., Roecker, E. B., & Luschei, E. (1995). Age effects on lingual pressure generation as a risk factor for dysphagia. Journals of Gerontology, Series A. Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 50, M257–M262.

Robbins, J. A., Hamilton, J. W., Lof, G. L., & Kempster, G. B. (1992). Oropharyngeal swallowing in normal adults of different ages. Gastroenterology, 103, 823–829.

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Normal Adult Swallowing: Neurophysiology

Adzaku, F. K., & Wyke, B. (1979). Innervation of the subglottic mucosa of the larynx and its significance. Folia Phoniatrica, 31, 271–283.

Amri, M., & Car, A. (1988). Projections from the medullar swallowing center to the hypoglossal motor nucleus: A neuroanatomical and electrophysiological study in sheep. Brain Research, 441, 119–126.

Amri, M., Car, A., & Jean, A. (1984). Medullary control of the pontine swallowing neurons in sheep. Experimental Brain Research, 55, 105–110.

Amri, M., Car, A., & Roman, C. (1990). Axonal branching of medullary swallowing neurons projecting on the trigeminal and hypoglossal motor nuclei: Demonstration by electrophysiological and fluorescent double labeling techniques. Experimental Brain Research, 81, 384–390.

Amri, M., Lamkadem, M., & Car, A. (1991). Effects of lingual nerve and chewing cortex stimulation upon activity of the swallowing neurons located in the region of the hypoglossal motor nucleus. Brain Research, 548, 149–155.

Anderson, J. W., Sant'Ambrogio, F. B., Mathew, O. P., & Sant'Ambrogio, G. (1990). Water-responsive laryngeal receptors in the dog are not specialized endings. Respiration Physiology, 79, 33–44.

Biedenbach, M. A., & Chan, K. Y. (1971). Tongue mechanoreceptors: Comparison of afferent fibers in the lingual nerve and chorda tympani. Brain Research, 35, 584–588.

Bieger, D., & Hockman, C. H. (1976). Suprabulbar modulation of reflex swallowing. Experimental Neurology, 52, 311–324.

Bieger, D., & Hopkins, D. (1987). Viscerotopic representation of the upper alimentary tract in the medulla oblongata in the rat: The nucleus ambiguus. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 262, 546–562.

Car, A., & Amri, M. (1987). Activity of neurons located in the region of the hypoglossal motor nucleus during swallowing in sheep. Experimental Brain Research, 69, 175–182.

Car, A., Jean, A., & Roman, C. (1975). A pontine primary relay for ascending projections of the superior laryngeal nerve. Experimental Brain Research, 22, 197–210.

Chibuzo, G. A., & Cummings, J. F. (1982). An enzyme tracer study of the organization of the somatic motor center for the innervation of different muscles of the tongue: Evidence for two sources. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 205, 273–281.

Davis, P. J., & Nail, B. S. (1984). On the location and size of laryngeal motoneurons in the cat and rabbit. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 230, 13–32.

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Elidan, J., Shochina, M., Gonen, B., & Gay, I. (1990). Electromyography of the inferior constrictor and cricopharyngeal muscles during swallowing. Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, 99, 466–469.

Ezure, K., Oku, Y., & Tanaka, I. (1993). Location and axonal projection of one type of swallowing interneurons in cat medulla. Brain Research, 632, 216–224.

Falempin, M., & Rousseau, J. P. (1984). Activity of lingual, laryngeal and oesophageal receptors in conscious sheep. Journal of Physiology, 347, 47–58.

Grelot, L., Barillot, J. C., & Bianchi, A. L. (1989). Central distributions of the efferent and afferent components of the pharyngeal branches of the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves: An HRP study in the cat. Experimental Brain Research, 78, 327–335.

Heeneman, H., & Brown, D. H. (1986). Senescent changes in and about the oral cavity and pharynx. Journal of Otolaryngology, 15, 214–216.

Hirai, T., Tanaka, O., Koshino, H., & Yajima, T. (1991). Ultrasound observations of tongue motor behavior. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 65, 840–844.

Jean, A. (1984). Brainstem organization of the swallowing network. Brain, Behavior and Evolution, 25, 109–116.

Jean, A. (1990). Brainstem control of swallowing: Localization and organization of the central pattern generator for swallowing. In A. Taylor (Ed.), Neurophysiology of the jaws and teeth (pp. 294–321). London: Macmillan Press Ltd..

Kalia, M., & Mesulam, M. (1980). Brain stem projections of sensory and motor components of the vagus complex in the cat: The cervical vagus and nodose ganglion. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 193, 435–465.

Kawamura, Y. (1970). The role of oral afferents for mandibular and lingual movements. In J. F. Bosma (Ed.), Second symposium on oral sensation and perception (pp. 170–191). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Kessler, J. P., & Jean, A. (1985). Identification of the medullary swallowing regions in the rat. Experimental Brain Research, 57, 256–263.

Kirchner, J. A. (1958). The motor activity of the cricopharyngeus muscle. Laryngoscope, 68, 1119–1159.

Krammer, E. V., Rath, T., & Lischka, M. F. (1979). Somatotopic organization of the hypoglossal nucleus: A HRP study in the rat. Brain Research, 170, 533–537.

Kubota, K., Amemiya, A., Ito, K., & Komori, A. (1962). Chronological changes of the nerve supply, especially of the pattern of the sensory nerve endings in the mucous membrane of the apex linguae in man. Bulletin of the Medical Research Institute of Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 9, 457–469.

Kubota, K., Negishi, T., & Masegi, T. (1975). Topological distribution of muscle spindles in the human tongue and its significance in proprioception. Bulletin of the Medical Research Institute of Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 22, 235–242.

Li, Y. Q., Takada, M., & Mizuno, N. (1993). Identification of premotor interneurons which project bilaterally to the trigeminal motor, facial or hypoglossal nuclei: A fluorescent retrograde double-labeling study in the rat. Brain Research, 611, 160–164.

Lowe, A. A. (1981). The neural regulation of tongue movements. Progress in Neurobiology, 15, 295–344.

Miller, A. J., & Bowman, J. P. (1977). Precentral cortical modulation of mastication and swallowing. Journal of Dental Research, 56, 1154.

Miller, F. R., & Sherrington, C. S. (1915). Some observations on the bucco-pharyngeal stage of reflex deglutition in the cat. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology, 9, 147–186.

Mizuno, N., & Nomura, S. (1986). Primary afferent fibers in the glossopharyngeal nerve terminate in the dorsal division of the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus: An HRP study in the cat. Neuroscience Letters, 66, 338–340.

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Muscle and Nerve Properties

Bigland-Ritchie, B., Johansson, R., Lippold, O. C., Smith, S., & Woods, J. J. (1983). Changes in motoneurone firing rates during sustained maximal voluntary contractions. Journal of Physiology, 340, 335–346.

Bigland-Ritchie, B., Jones, D. A., & Woods, J. J. (1979). Excitation frequency and muscle fatigue: Electrical responses during human voluntary and stimulated contractions. Experimental Neurology, 64, 414–427.

Bigland-Ritchie, B., & Woods, J. J. (1984). Changes in muscle contractile properties and neural control during human muscular fatigue. Muscle Nerve, 7, 691–699.

Burke, R. E., Levine, D. N., Tsairis, P., & Zajac, F. E. (1974). Physiological types and histochemical profiles in motor units of the cat gastrocnemius. Journal of Physiology, 234, 723–748.

Clarkson, P. M., Kroll, W., & Melchionda, A. M. (1981). Age, isometric strength, rate of tension development and fiber type composition. Journal of Gerontology, 36, 648–653.

Cooper, S. (1953). Muscle spindles in the intrinsic muscles of the human tongue. Journal of Physiology, 122, 193–202.

Enoka, R. M., Robinson, G. A., & Kossev, A. R. (1989). Task and fatigue effects on low-threshold motor units in human hand muscle. Journal of Neurophysiology, 62, 1344–1359.

Enoka, R. M., & Stuart, D. G. (1984). Henneman's “size principle”: Current issues. Trends in Neurosciences, 7, 226–228.

Enoka, R. M., & Stuart, D. (1992). Neurobiology of muscle fatigue. Journal of Applied Physiology, 72, 1631–1648.

Gordon, A. M., Huxley, A. F., & Julian, F. J. (1966). The variation in isometric tension with sarcomere length in vertebrate muscle fibres. Journal of Physiology, 184, 170–192.

Grimby, L., Hannerz, J., & Hedman, B. (1981). The fatigue and voluntary discharge properties of single motor units in man. Journal of Physiology, 316, 545–554.

Häkkinen, K., Kraemer, W. J., Kallinen, M., Linnamo, V., Pastinen, U., & Newton, R. U. (1996). Bilateral and unilateral neuromuscular function and muscle cross-sectional area in middle-aged and elderly men and women. Journal of Gerontology, 51(A), B21–B29.

Hellstrand, E. (1980). Morphological and histochemical properties of tongue muscles in cat. Acta Physiologica Scandinavia, 110, 187–198.

Henneman, E., Somjen, G., & Carpenter, D. O. (1965). Functional significance of cell size in spinal motoneurons. Journal of Neurophysiology, 28, 599–620.

Huxley, A. F., & Niedergerke, R. (1954). Structural changes in muscle during contraction. Nature, 173, 971–973.

Huxley, H. E. (1969). The mechanism of muscular contraction. Science, 164, 1356–1366.

Kandel, E. R., & Siegelbaum, S. A. (1991). Directly gated transmission at the nerve-muscle synapse. In E. R. Kandel, J. H. Schwartz, & T. M. Jessel (Eds.), Principles of neural science (3rd ed., pp. 135–152). Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange.

Kernel, D. D. (1966). Input resistance, electrical excitability, and size of ventral horn cells in cat spinal cord. Science, 152, 1637–1640.

Milner-Brown, H. S., Mellenthin, M., & Miller, R. G. (1986). Quantifying human muscle strength, endurance and fatigue. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 67, 530–535.

Milner-Brown, H. S., & Miller, R. (1986). Muscle membrane excitation and impulse propagation velocity are reduced during muscle fatigue. Muscle & Nerve, 9, 367–374.

Milner-Brown, H. S., & Miller, R. (1988). Muscle strengthening through high-resistance weight training in patients with neuromuscular disorders. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 69, 14–19.

Milner-Brown, H. S., Stein, R. B., & Lee, R. G. (1975). Synchronization of human motor units: Possible roles of exercise and supraspinal reflexes. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 38, 245–254.

Milner-Brown, H., Stein, R., & Yemm, R. (1973). Changes in firing rate of human motor units during linearly changing voluntary contractions. Journal of Physiology, 230, 371–390.

Milner-Brown, H., Stein, R., & Yemm, R. (1973). The contractile properties of human motor units during voluntary isometric contractions. Journal of Physiology, 228, 285–306.

Morimoto, T., Takata, M., & Kawamura, Y. (1968). Effect of lingual nerve stimulation on hypoglossal motoneurons. Experimental Neurology, 22, 174–190.

Ogawa, H., Hayama, T., & Yamashita, Y. (1988). Thermal sensitivity of neurons in a rostral part of the rat solitary tract nucleus. Brain Research, 454, 321–331.

Pommerenke, W. T. (1928). A study of the sensory areas eliciting the swallowing reflex. American Journal of Physiology, 84, 36–41.

Sampson, S., & Eyzaguirre, C. (1964). Some functional characteristics of mechanoreceptors in the larynx of the cat. Journal of Neurophysiology, 27, 464–480.

Sant'Ambrogio, G., Mathew, O. P., & Sant'Ambrogio, F. B. (1988). Characteristics of laryngeal cold receptors. Respiratory Physiology, 71, 287–298.

Shaw, N. A. (1992). Age-dependent changes in central somatosensory conduction time. Clinical Electroencephalography, 23, 105–110.

Sokoloff, A. J., & Deacon, T. W. (1992). Musculotopic organization of the hypoglossal nucleus in the Cynomolgus monkey, Macaca fascicularis. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 324, 81–93.

Squire, J. M. (1983). Molecular mechanism in muscular contraction. Trends in NeuroSciences, 6, 409–413.

Storey, A. T. (1968). Laryngeal initiation of swallowing. Experimental Neurology, 20, 359–365.

Sumi, T. (1977). Modification of cortically evoked rhythmic jaw movements by reflex deglutition in rabbits. Japanese Journal of Physiology, 27, 391–398.

Sweazey, R. D., & Bradley, R. M. (1989). Responses of neurons in the lamb nucleus tractus solitarius to stimulation of the caudal oral cavity and epiglottis with different stimulus modalities. Brain Research, 480, 133–150.

Tolu, E., Caria, M. A., Simula, M. E., & Lacana, P. (1994). Muscle spindle and periodontal trigeminal afferents modulate the hypoglossal motoneuronal activity. Archives Italiennes de Biologie, 132, 93–104.

Uemura, M., Matsuda, K., Kume, M., Takeuchi, Y., Matsushima, R., & Mizuno, N. (1979). Topographic arrangement of hypoglossal motoneurons: An HRP study in the cat. Neuroscience Letters, 13, 99–104.

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Abnormal Swallowing

Aviv, J. E., Spitzer, J., Cohen, M., Ma, G., Belafsky, P., & Close, L. G. (2002). Laryngeal adductor reflex and pharyngeal squeeze as predictors of laryngeal penetration and aspiration. Laryngoscope, 112, 338–341.

Bisch, E. M., Logemann, J. A., Rademaker, A. W., Kahrilas, P. J., & Lazarus, C. L. (1994). Pharyngeal effects of bolus volume, viscosity, and temperature in patients with dysphagia resulting from neurologic impairment and in normal subjects. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 37, 1041–1059.

Cook, I. J., & Kahrilas, P. J. (1999). AGA technical review on management of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Gastroenterology, 116, 455.

Eisenhuber, E., Schima, W., Schober, E., Pokieser, P., & Stadler, A. (2002). Videofluoroscopic assessment of patients with dysphagia: Pharyngeal retention is a predictive factor for aspiration. American Journal of Roentgenology, 78, 393–398.

Murray, J., Langmore, S. E., Ginsberg, S., & Dostie, A. (1996). The significance of accumulated oropharyngeal secretions and swallowing frequency in predicting aspiration. Dysphagia, 11, 99–103.

Ogura, J. N., Kawasaki, M., & Takenouchi, S. (1964). Neurophysiologic observations on the adaptive mechanism of deglutition. Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, 73, 1062–1082.

Pelletier, C. A., & Lawless, H. T. (2003). Effect of citric acid and citric acid-sucrose mixtures on swallowing in neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia. Dysphagia, 18, 231–241.

Robbins, J., Coyle, J., Rosenbek, J., Roeker, E., & Wood, J. (1999). Differentiation of normal and abnormal airway protection during swallowing using the penetration-aspiration scale. Dysphagia, 14, 228–232.

Warms, T., & Richards, J. (2000). “Wet voice” as a predictor of penetration and aspiration in oropharyngeal dysphagia. Dysphagia, 15, 84–88.

Williams, R. B., Wallace, K. L., Ali, G. N., & Cook, I. J. (2002). Biomechanics of failed deglutitive upper esophageal sphincter relaxation in patients with neurogenic dysphagia. American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, 283, G16–G26.

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Neurological Disorders

Aviv, J. E., Sacco, R. L., Thomson, J., Tandon, R., Diamond, B., Martin, J. H., & Close, L. G. (1997). Silent laryngopharyngeal sensory deficits after stroke. Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, 106, 87–93.

Buchholz, D. W. (1994). Dysphagia associated with neurological disorders. Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Belgica, 42, 143–155.

Daniels, S. K., Brailey, K., Priestly, D. H., Herrington, L. R., Weisberg, L. A., & Foundas, A. L. (1998). Aspiration in patients with acute stroke. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 79, 14–19.

Daniels, S. K., & Foundas, A. L. (1997). The role of the insular cortex in dysphagia. Dysphagia, 12, 146–156.

Han, D. S., Chang, Y. C., Lu, C. H., & Wang, T. G. (2005). Comparison of disordered swallowing patterns in patients with recurrent, cortical/subcortical stroke and first-time brainstem stroke. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 37, 189–191.

Horner, J., Brazer, S. R., & Massey, E. W. (1993). Aspiration in bilateral stroke patients: A validation study. Neurology, 43, 430–433.

Horner, J., & Massey, E. W. (1988). Silent aspiration following stroke. Neurology, 38, 317–319.

Horner, J., Massey, E. W., & Brazer, S. R. (1990). Aspiration in bilateral stroke patients. Neurology, 40, 1686–1688.

Kim, H., Chung, C. S., Lee, K. H., & Robbins, J. (2000). Aspiration subsequent to a pure medullary infarction: Lesion sites, clinical variables, and outcome. Archives of Neurology, 57, 478–483.

Martino, R., Foley, N., Bhogal, S., Diamant, N., Speechley, M., & Teasell, R. (2005). Dysphagia after stroke: Incidence, diagnosis and pulmonary complications. Stroke, 36, 2756–2763.

Nilsson, H., Ekberg, O., Olsson, R., & Hindfelt, B. (1998). Dysphagia in stroke: A prospective study of quantitative aspects of swallowing in dysphagic subjects. Dysphagia, 13, 32–38.

Robbins, J., & Levine, R. (1993). Swallowing after lateral medullary syndrome plus. Clinics in Communication Disorders, 3, 45–55.

Robbins, J., Levine, R. L., Maser, A., Rosenbek, J. C., & Kempster, G. B. (1993). Swallowing after unilateral stroke of the cerebral cortex. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 74, 1295–1300.

Sellars, C., Campbell, A. M., Stott, D. J., Stewart, M., & Wilson, J. A. (1999). Swallowing abnormalities after acute stroke: A case controlled study. Dysphagia, 14, 212–218.

Veis, S. L., & Logemann, J. A. (1985). Swallowing disorders in persons with cerebrovascular accident. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 66, 372–375.

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Dementia

Horner, J., Alberts, M. J., Dawson, D. V., & Cook, G. M. (1994). Swallowing in Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 8, 177–189.

Priefer, B. A., & Robbins, J. (1997). Eating changes in mild-stage Alzheimer's disease: A pilot study. Dysphagia, 12, 121–221.

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Neuromuscular Diseases

Chen, M. Y., Donofrio, P. D., Frederick, M. G., Ott, D. J, & Pikna, L. A. (1996). Videofluoroscopic evaluation of patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome. Dysphagia, 11, 11–13.

Colton-Hudson, A., Koopman, W. J., Moosa, T., Smith, D., Bach, D., & Nicolle, M. (2002). A prospective assessment of the characteristics of dysphagia in myasthenia gravis. Dysphagia, 17, 147–151.

Hig, R., Nito, T., & Tayama, N. (2005). Videofluoroscopic assessment of swallowing function in patients with myasthenia gravis. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 231, 45–48.

Kluin, K. J., Bromberg, M. B., Feldman, E. L., & Simmons, Z. (1996). Dysphagia in elderly men with myasthenia gravis. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 138, 49–52.

Sonies, B. C., & Dalakas, M. C. (1991). Dysphagia in patients with the post-polio syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine, 324, 1162–1167.

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Neurodegenerative Disorders
Motor Neuron Disease

Bosma, J. F., & Brodie, D. R. (1969). Disabilities of the pharynx in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis as demonstrated by cineradiography. Radiology, 92, 97–103.

Kidney, D., Alexander, M., Corr, B., O' Toole, O., & Hardiman, O. (2004). Oropharyngeal dysphagia in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Neurological and dysphagia specific rating scales. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Other Motor Neuron Disorders, 5, 150–153.

Leonard, R. J., Kendall, K. A., Johnson, R., & McKenzie, S. (2001). Swallowing in myotonic muscular dystrophy: A videofluoroscopic study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 82, 979–985.

Strand, E. A., Miller, R. M., Yorkston, K. M., & Hillel, A. D. (1996). Management of oral-pharyngeal dysphagia symptoms in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Dysphagia, 11, 129–139.

Wright, R., & Jordan, C. (1997). Videofluoroscopic evaluation of dysphagia in motor neuron disease with modified barium swallow. Palliative Medicine, 11, 44–48.

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Parkinson's Disease Plus

Fuh, J. L., Lee, R. C., Wang, S. J., Lin, C. H., Wang, P. N., Chiang, J. H., & Liu, H. C. (1997). Swallowing difficulty in Parkinson's disease. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, 99, 106–112.

Higo, R., Tayama, N., Watanabe, T., Nitou, T., & Ugawa, Y. (2003). Videofluoroscopic and manometric evaluation of swallowing function in patients with multiple system atrophy. Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology, 112, 630–636.

Leopold, N. A., & Kagel, M. C. (1997). Dysphagia in progressive supranuclear palsy: Radiologic features. Dysphagia, 12, 140–143.

Litvan, I., Sastry, N., & Sonies, B. C. (1997). Characterizing swallowing abnormalities in progressive supranuclear palsy. Neurology, 48, 1654–1662.

Nagaya, M., Kachi, T., Yamada, T., & Igata, A. (1998). Videofluorographic study of swallowing in Parkinson's disease. Dysphagia, 13, 95–100.

Robbins, J. A., Logemann, J. A., & Kirshner, H. S. (1994). Swallowing and speech production in Parkinson's disease. Annals of Neurology, 19, 283–287.

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Huntington's Disease

Kagel, M. C., & Leopold, N. A. (1992). Dysphagia in Huntington's disease: A 16 year retrospective. Dysphagia, 7, 106–114.

Leopold, N. A., & Kagel, M. C. (1985). Dysphagia in Huntington's disease. Archives of Neurology, 42, 57–60.

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Other Neurologic Disorders
Multiple Sclerosis

Abraham, S. S., & Yun, P. T. (2002). Laryngopharyngeal dysmotility in multiple sclerosis. Dysphagia, 17, 69–74.

De Pauw, A., Dejaeger, E., D'hooghe, B., & Carton, H. (2002). Dysphagia in multiple sclerosis. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, 104, 345–351.

Merson, R. M., & Rolnick, M. I. (1998). Speech-language pathology and dysphagia in multiple sclerosis. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 9, 631–641.

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Spinal Cord Injury

Abel, R., Ruf, S., & Spahn, B. (2004). Cervical spinal cord injury and deglutition disorders. Dysphagia, 19, 87–94.

Kirshblum, S., Johnston, M. V., Brown, S., O'Connor, K. C., & Jarosz, P. (1999). Predictors of dysphagia after spinal cord injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 80, 1101–1105.

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Traumatic Brain Injury

Cherney, L. R., & Halper, A. S. (1996). Swallowing problems in adults with traumatic brain injury. Seminars in Neurology, 16, 349–353.

Lazarus, C., & Logemann, J. A. (1987). Swallowing disorders in closed head trauma patients. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 68, 79–84.

Leder, S. B. (1999). Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing in patients with acute traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 14, 448–453.

Morgan, A. S., & Mackay, L. E. (1999). Causes and complications associated with swallowing disorders in traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 14, 454–461.

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Iatrogenic Causes
Endotracheal Intubation Effects

Ajemian, M. S., Nirmul, G. B., Anderson, M. T., Zirlen, D. M., & Kwasnik, E. M. (2001). Routine fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing following prolonged intubation: Implications for management. Archives of Surgery, 136, 434–437.

Barquist, E., Brown, M., Cohn, S., Lundy, D., & Jackowski, J. (2001). Postextubation fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing after prolonged endotracheal intubation: A randomized, prospective trial. Critical Care Medicine, 29, 1710–1713.

Davis, L. A., & Thompson Stanton, S. (2004). Characteristics of dysphagia in elderly patients requiring mechanical intervention. Dysphagia, 19, 7–14.

Leder, S. B., Cohn, S. M., & Moller, B. A. (1998). Fiberoptic endoscopic documentation of the high incidence of aspiration following extubation in critically ill trauma patients. Dysphagia, 13, 208–212.

Partik, B., Pokieser, P., Schima, W., Schober, E., Stadler, A., Eisenhuber, E., et al. (2000). Videofluoroscopy of swallowing in symptomatic patients who have undergone long-term intubation. American Journal of Roentgenology, 174, 1409–1412.

Tolep, K., Getch, C. L., & Criner, G. J. (1996). Swallowing dysfunction in patients receiving prolonged mechanical ventilation. Chest, 109, 167–172.

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Tracheostomy Tube Effects

Dettelbach, M. A., Gross, R. D., Mahlmann, J., & Eibling, D. E. (1995). Effect of the Passy-Muir valve on aspiration in patients with tracheostomy. Head & Neck, 17, 297–302.

Ding, R., & Logemann, J. A. (2005). Swallow physiology in patients with trach cuff inflated or deflated: A retrospective study. Head & Neck, 27, 809–813.

Goldsmith, T. (2000). Evaluation and treatment of swallowing disorders following endotracheal intubation and tracheostomy. International Anesthesiology Clinics, 38, 219–242.

Gross, R. D., Mahlmann, J., & Grayhack, J. P. (2003). Physiologic effects of open and closed tracheostomy tubes on the pharyngeal swallow. Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology, 112, 143–150.

Leder, S. B. (1999). Effect of a one-way tracheotomy speaking valve on the incidence of aspiration in previously aspirating patients with tracheotomy. Dysphagia, 14, 73–77.

Leder, S. B., & Ross, D. A. (2000). Investigation of the causal relationship between tracheotomy and aspiration in the acute care setting. Laryngoscope, 110, 641–644.

Leder, S. B., Tarro, J. M., & Burrell, M. I. (1996). Effect of occlusion of a tracheotomy tube on aspiration. Dysphagia, 11, 254–258.

Logemann, J. A., Pauloski, B. R., & Colangelo, L. (1998). Light digital occlusion of the tracheostomy tube: A pilot study of effects of aspiration and biomechanics of the swallow. Head & Neck, 20, 52–57.

Shaker, R., Milbrath, M., Ren, J., Campbell, B., Toohill, R., & Hogan, W. (1995). Deglutitive aspiration in patients with tracheostomy: Effect of tracheostomy on the duration of vocal cord closure. Gastroenterology, 108, 1357–1360.

Suiter, D. M., McCullough, G. H., & Powell, P. W. (2003). Effects of cuff deflation and one-way speaking valve placement on swallow physiology. Dysphagia, 18, 284–292.

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Medication Side Effects and/or Postsurgical Complications

Buchholz, D. W. (1995). Oropharyngeal dysphagia due to iatrogenic neurological dysfunction. Dysphagia, 10, 248–254.

Ferraris, V. A., Ferraris, S. P., Moritz, D. M., & Welch, S. (2001). Oropharyngeal dysphagia after cardiac operations. Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 71, 1792–1795.

Partik, B. L., Scharitzer, M., Schueller, G., Voracek, M., Schima, W., Schober, E., et al. (2003). Videofluoroscopy of swallowing abnormalities in 22 symptomatic patients after cardiovascular surgery. American Journal of Roentgenology, 180, 987–992.

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Medication Induced Dysphagia

Sokoloff, L. G., & Pavlakovic, R. (1997). Neuroleptic-induced dysphagia. Dysphagia, 12, 177–179.

Stoschus, B., & Allescher, H. D. (1993). Drug-induced dysphagia. Dysphagia, 8, 154–159.

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Airway/Respiratory Issues

Coelho, C. (1987). Preliminary findings of the nature of dysphagia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Dysphagia, 2, 28–31.

Mokhlesi, B., Logemann, J. A., Rademaker, A. W., Stangl, C. A., & Corbridge, T. C. (2002). Oropharyngeal deglutition in stable COPD. Chest, 121, 361–369.

Morton, R., Minford, J., Ellis, R. E., & Pinnington, L. (2002). Aspiration with dysphagia: The interaction between oropharyngeal and respiratory impairments. Dysphagia, 17, 192–196.

Selley, W. G., Flack, F. C., Ellis, R. E., & Brooks, W. A. (1989). Respiratory patterns associated with swallowing: Part 1. The normal adult pattern and changes with age. Age and Ageing, 18, 168–172.

Selley, W. G., Flack, F. C., Ellis, R. E., & Brooks, W. A. (1989). Respiratory patterns associated with swallowing: Part 2. Neurologically impaired dysphagic patients. Age and Ageing, 18, 173–176.

Shaker, R., Li, Q., Ren, J., Townsend, W. F., Dodds, W. G., Martin, B. J., et al. (1992). Coordination of deglutition and phases of respiration: Effect of aging, tachypnea, bolus volume, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. American Journal of Physiology, 263, G750–G755.

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Structural Disorders
Head and Neck Cancer

Carrara-de Angelis, E. C., Feher, O., Barros, A. P., Nishimoto, I. N., & Kowalski, L. P. (2003). Voice and swallowing in patients enrolled in a larynx preservation trial. Archives of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, 129, 733–738.

Davis, J. W., Lazarus, C., Logemann, J. A., & Hurst, P. S. (1987). Effect of a maxillary glossectomy prosthesis on articulation and swallowing. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 57, 715–719.

Eisbruch, A., Lyden, T., Bradford, C. R., Dawson, L. A., Haxer, M. J., Miller, A. E., et al. (2002). Objective assessment of swallowing dysfunction and aspiration after radiation concurrent with chemotherapy for head-and-neck cancer. International Journal of Radiation: Oncology-Biology-Physics, 53, 23–28.

Gillespie, M. B., Brodsky, M. B., Day, T. A., Sharma, A. K., Lee, F. S, & Martin-Harris, B. (2005). Laryngeal penetration and aspiration during swallowing after the treatment of advanced oropharyngeal cancer. Archives of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, 131, 615–619.

Hamlet, S., Faull, J., Klein, B., Aref, A., Fontanesi, J., Stachler, R., et al. (1997). Mastication and swallowing in patients with postirradiation xerostomia. International Journal of Radiation: Oncology-Biology-Physics, 37, 789–796.

Kotz, T., Abraham, S., Beitler, J. J., Wadler, S., & Smith, R. V. (1999). Pharyngeal transport dysfunction consequent to an organ-sparing protocol. Archives of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, 125, 410–413.

Lazarus, C. L. (1993). Effects of radiation therapy and voluntary maneuvers on swallow function in head and neck cancer patients. Clinics in Communication Disorders, 3, 11–20.

Lazarus, C. L. (2000). Management of swallowing disorders in head and neck cancer patients: Optimal patterns of care. Seminars in Speech and Language, 21, 293–309.

Lazarus, C. L., Logemann, J. A., Pauloski, B. R., Colangelo, L. A., Kahrilas, P. J., Mittal, B. B., & Pierce, M. (1996). Swallowing disorders in head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy. Laryngoscope, 106, 1157–1166.

Lazarus, C. L., Logemann, J. A., Pauloski, B. R., Rademaker, A. W., Larson, C. R., Mittal, B. B., & Pierce, M. (2000). Swallowing and tongue function following treatment for oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 43, 1011–1023.

Logemann, J. A. (1985). The relationship between spacer and swallowing in head and neck surgical patients. Seminars in Speech and Language Research, 6, 351–359.

Logemann, J. A., Pauloski, B. R., Rademaker, A.W., McConnel, F. M., Heiser, M. A., Cardinale, S., et al. (1993). Speech and swallow function after tonsil/base of tongue resection with primary closure. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 36, 918–926.

Martin, B. J., Schleicher, M. A., & O'Connor, A. (1993). Management of dysphagia following supraglottic laryngectomy. Clinics in Communication Disorders, 3, 27–36.

McConnel, F. M. S., Logemann, J. A., Rademaker, A. W., Pauloski, B. R., Baker, S. R., Lewin, J., et al. (1994). Surgical variables affecting postoperative swallowing efficacy in oral cancer patients: A pilot study. Laryngoscope, 104, 87–90.

Muller-Miny, H., Eisele, D. W., & Jones, B. (1993). Dynamic radiographic imaging following total laryngectomy. Head & Neck, 15, 342–347.

Pauloski, B. R., & Logemann, J. A. (2000). Impact of tongue base and posterior pharyngeal wall biomechanics on pharyngeal clearance in irradiated postsurgical oral and oropharyngeal cancer patients. Head & Neck, 22, 120–131.

Pauloski, B. R., Logemann, J. A., Rademaker, A. W., McConnel, F. M. S., Stein, D., Beery, Q., et al. (1994). Speech and swallowing function after oral and oropharyngeal resections: One-year follow up. Head & Neck, 16, 313–322.

Pauloski, B. R., Rademaker, A. W., Logemann, J. A., Lazarus, C. L., Newman, L., Hamner, A., et al. (2002). Swallow function and perception of dysphagia in patients with head and neck cancer. Head & Neck, 24, 555–565.

Rademaker, A. W., Logemann, J. A., Pauloski, B. R., Bowman, J. B., Lazarus, C. L., Sisson, G. A., et al. (1993). Recovery of postoperative swallowing in patients undergoing partial laryngectomy. Head & Neck, 15, 325–334.

Smith, R. V., Goldman, S. Y., Beitler, J. J., & Wadler, S. S. (2004). Decreased short- and long-term swallowing problems with altered radiotherapy dosing used in an organ-sparing protocol for advanced pharyngeal carcinoma. Archives of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, 130, 831–836.

Stenson, K. M., MacCracken, E., List, M., Haraf, D. J., Brockstein, B., Weichselbaum, R., & Vokes, E. E. (2000). Swallowing function in patients with head and neck cancer prior to treatment. Archives of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, 126, 371–377.

Ward, E. C., Bishop, B., Frisby, J., & Stevens, M. (2002). Swallowing outcomes following laryngectomy and pharyngolaryngectomy. Archives of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, 128, 181–186.

Woisard, V., Puech, M., Yardeni, E., Serrano, E., & Pessey, J. J. (1996). Deglutition after supracricoid laryngectomy: Compensatory mechanisms and sequelae. Dysphagia, 11, 265–269.

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Cervical Disk Disease

Di Vito, J. (1998). Cervical osteophytic dysphagia: Single and combined mechanisms. Dysphagia, 13, 58–61.

Smith-Hammond, C. A., New, K. C., & Pietrobon, R. (2004). Prospective analysis of incidence and risk factors of dysphagia in spine surgery patients: Comparison of anterior cervical, posterior cervical and lumbar procedures. Spine, 29, 1441–1446.

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Cricopharyngeal Disorders

Achkar, E. (1998). Zenker's diverticulum. Digestive Disorders, 16, 144–151.

Goyal, R. K. (1984). Disorders of the cricopharyngeus muscle. Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America, 17, 115–127.

Halum, S. L., Merati, A. L., Kulpa, J. I., Danielson, S. K., Jaradeh, S. S., & Toohill, R. J. (2003). Videofluoroscopic swallow studies in unilateral cricopharyngeal dysfunction. Laryngoscope, 113, 981–984.

Kelly, J. H. (2000). Management of upper esophageal sphincter disorders: Indications and complications of myotomy. American Journal of Medicine, 108(Suppl. 4a), 43S–46S.

McConnel, F. M., Hood, D., Jackson, K., & O'Connor, A. (1994). Analysis of intrabolus forces in patients with Zenker's diverticulum. Laryngoscope, 104(5, Pt. 1), 571–581.

Sewell, R. K., & Bauman, N. M. (2005). Congenital cricopharyngeal achalasia: Management with botulinum toxin before myotomy. Archives of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, 131, 451–453.

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Systemic Causes

Ertekin, C., Secil, Y., Yuceyar, N., & Aydogdu, I. (2004). Oropharyngeal dysphagia in polymyositis/dermatomyositis. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, 107, 32–37.

Halvorsen, R. A., Moelleken, S. M., & Kearney, A. T. (2003). Videofluoroscopic evaluation of HIV/AIDS patients with swallowing dysfunction. Abdominal Imaging, 28, 244–247.

McNeilly, L. G. (2005). HIV and communication. Journal of Communication Disorders, 38, 303–310.

Schechter, G. L. (1998). Systemic causes of dysphagia in adults. Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America, 31, 525–535.

Williams, R. B., Grehan, M. J., Hersch, M., Andre, J., & Cook, I. J. (2003). Biomechanics, diagnosis, and treatment outcome in inflammatory myopathy presenting as oropharyngeal dysphagia. Gut, 52, 471–478.

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Esophageal Dysphagia

Allen, M., & DiMarino, A. (1996). Manometric diagnosis of diffuse esophageal spasm. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 41, 1346–1351.

Bernstein, L. M., & Baker, L. A. (1958). A clinical test for esophagitis. Gastroenterology, 34, 760–781.

Borthwick, M., Katz, P. O., & Castell, D. O. (2000). Gender differences in amplitude of contraction in the distal esophagus. Gastroenterology, 118, A1218.

Castell, D. O. (1979). The spectrum of esophageal motility disorders. Gastroenterology, 76, 639–645.

Castell, D. O., Diederich, L. L., & Castell, J. A. (2000). Esophageal motility and pH testing: Technique and interpretation (3rd ed.). Highlands Ranch, CO: Sandhill Scientific.

Cook, I. J., Gabb, M., Panangopoulos, V., Jamieson, G. G., Dodds, W. J., Dent, J., & Shearman, D. J. (1992). Pharyngeal (Zenker's) diverticulum: A disorder of upper esophageal sphincter opening. Gastroenterology, 103, 1229–1235.

Dodds, W. J., Hogan, W. J., Stef, J. J., Miller, W. N., Lydon, S. B., & Arndorfer, R. C. (1975). A rapid pull-through technique for measuring lower esophageal sphincter pressure. Gastroenterology, 68, 437–443.

Dantas, R. O., Cook, I. J., Dodds, W. J., Kern, M. K., Lang, I. M., & Brasseur, I. G. (1990). Biomechanics of cricopharyngeal bars. Gastroenterology, 99, 1269–1274.

Fouad, Y. M., Katz, P. O., Hatlebakk, J., & Castell, D. O. (1999). Ineffective esophageal motility: The most common motility abnormality in patients with GERD-associated respiratory symptoms. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 94, 1464–1467.

Fulp, S. R., Dalton, C. B., Castell, J. A., & Castell, D. O. (1990). Aging-related alterations in human upper esophageal function. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 85, 1569–1572.

Harding, S., Richter, J., Guzzo, M., Schan, C., Alexander, R., & Bradley, L. (1996). Asthma and gastroesophageal reflux: Acid suppressive therapy improves asthma symptoms. American Journal of Medicine, 100, 395–405.

Jacob, P., Kahrilas, P. J., Logemann, J. A., Shah, V., & Ha, T. (1989). Upper esophageal sphincter opening and modulation during swallowing. Gastroenterology, 97, 1469–1478.

Kahrilas, P. J., Dodds, W. I., & Hogan, W. I. (1988). Effect of peristaltic dysfunction on esophageal volume clearance. Gastroenterology, 94, 73–80.

Katzka, D. A., & Castell, D. O. (1999). Use of botulinum toxin as a diagnostic/therapeutic trial to help clarify an indication for definitive therapy in patients with achalasia. American Journal Gastroenterology, 94, 637–642.

Leite, L. P., Johnston, B. T., Barrett, J., Castell, J. A., & Castell, D. O. (1997). Ineffective esophageal motility (IEM): The primary finding in patients with non-specific esophageal motility disorder. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 42, 1859–1865.

Loo, F. D., Dodds, W. J., Soergel, K. H., Arndorfer, R. C., Helm, J. F., & Hogan, W. J. (1985). Multipeaked esophageal peristaltic pressure waves in patients with diabetic neuropathy. Gastroenterology, 88, 485–491.

Martin, R. E., Letsos, P., Taves, D. H., Inculet, R. I., Johnston, H., & Preiksaitis, H. G. (2001). Oropharyngeal dysphagia in esophageal cancer before and after transhiatal esophagectomy. Dysphagia, 16, 23–31.

Martin-Harris, B., Michel, Y., & Castell, D. O. (2005). Physiologic model of oropharyngeal swallowing revisited. Archives of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, 133, 234–240.

Massey, B. T., Dodds, W. I., Hogan, W. J., Brasseur, J. G., & Helm, J. F. (1991). Abnormal esophageal motility: An analysis of concurrent radiographic and manometric findings. Gastroenterology, 101, 344–354.

Miller, L. S., Parkman, H. P., Schiano, T. D., Cassidy, M. J., Ter, R. B., Dabezies, M. A., et al. (1996). Treatment of symptomatic nonachalasia esophageal motor disorders with botulinum toxin injection at the lower esophageal sphincter. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 41, 2025–2031.

Peghini, P. L., Katz, P. O., & Castell, D. O. (1998). Ranitidine controls nocturnal gastric acid breakthrough on omeprazole: A controlled study in normal subjects. Gastroenterology, 115, 1335–1339.

Peghini, P., Katz, P. O., Ko, A., Gideon, M., Castell, J., & Castell, D. (1997). Ineffective esophageal motility (IEM) is a reproducible manometric entity, and affects all swallows. Gastroenterology, 112, A225.

Richter, J. E., Wu, W. C., Johns, D. N., Blackwell, J. N., Nelson, J. L., Castell, J. A., & Castell, D. O. (1987). Esophageal manometry in 95 healthy adult volunteers: Variability of pressure with age and frequency of “abnormal” contractions. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 32, 583–592.

Schnatz, P. F., Castell, J. A., & Castell, D. O. (1996). Pulmonary symptoms associated with gastroesophageal reflux: Use of ambulatory pH monitoring to diagnose and to direct therapy. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 91, 1715–1718.

Sears, V., Castell, J. A., & Castell, D. (1990). Comparison of effects of upright versus supine body position and liquid versus solid bolus on esophageal pressures in normal humans. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 35, 857–864.

Srinivasan, R., Vela, M. F., Katz, P. O., & Castell, D. O. (2000). Effect of Bethanechol on esophageal function using multichannel intraluminal impedance. Gastroenterology, 118, A134.

Stevens, M. B., Hookman, P., Siegel, C. I., Esterly, J. R., Shulman, L. E., & Hendrix, T. R. (1964). Aperistalsis of the esophagus in patients with connective-tissue disorders and Raynaud's phenomenon. New England Journal of Medicine, 270, 1218–1222.

Ter, R. B., Johnston, B. T., & Castell, D. O. (1997). Exclusion of the meal period improves the clinical reliability of esophageal pH monitoring. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 25, 314–316.

Tsianos, E. B., Chiras, C. D., Drosos, A. A., & Moutsopoulos, H. M. (1985). Oesophageal dysfunction in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 44, 610–613.

Vela, M. F., Srinivasan, R., Katz, P. O., & Castell, D. O. (2000). Esophageal function in normal subjects and patients with scleroderma and ineffective esophageal motility assessed through multichannel intraluminal impedance. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 95, A2705.

Wiener, G. J., Koufman, J. A., Wu, W. C., Cooper, J. B., Richter, J. E., & Castell, D. O. (1988). Chronic hoarseness secondary to gastroesophageal reflux disease: Documentation with 24 hour ambulatory pH monitoring. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 84, 1503–1508.

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Psychogenic Dysphagia

Caylakli, F., Yavuz, H., Erkan, A. N., Ozer, C., & Ozluoglu, L. N. (2006). Evaluation of patients with globus pharyngeus with barium swallow pharyngoesophagography. Laryngoscope, 116, 37–39.

Ravich, W. J., Wilson, R. S., Jones, B., & Donner, M. W. (1989). Psychogenic dysphagia and globus: Reevaluation of 23 patients. Dysphagia, 4, 35–38.

Shapiro, J., Franko, D. L., & Gagne, A. (1997). Phagophobia: A form of psychogenic dysphagia. A new entity. Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology, 106, 286–290.

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Aspiration and Aspiration Pneumonia

Langmore, S. E., Terpenning, M. S., & Schork, A. (1998). Predictors of aspiration pneumonia: How important is dysphagia? Dysphagia, 12, 69–81.

Marik, P. (2001). Aspiration pneumonitis and aspiration pneumonia. New England Journal of Medicine, 344, 665–671.

Marik, P. E., & Kaplan, D. (2003). Aspiration pneumonia and dysphagia in the elderly. Chest, 124, 328–336.

Martin, B. J., Corlew, M. M, Wood, H., Olson, D., Golopol, L. A., Wingo, M., & Kirmani, N. (1994). The association of swallowing dysfunction and aspiration pneumonia. Dysphagia, 9, 1–6.

Pikus, L., Levine, M. S., Yang, Y. X., Rubesin, S. E., Katzka, D. A., Laufer, I., & Gefter, W. B. (2003). Videofluoroscopic studies of swallowing dysfunction and the relative risk of pneumonia. American Journal of Roentgenology, 180, 1613–1616.

Ramsey, D., Smithard, D., & Kalra, L. (2005). Silent aspiration: What do we know? Dysphagia, 20, 218–225.

Smith, C. H., Logemann, J. A., Colangelo, L. A., Rademaker, A. W., & Pauloski, B. R. (1999). Incidence and patient characteristics associated with silent aspiration in the acute care setting. Dysphagia, 14, 1–7.

Smith-Hammond, C. A., & Goldstein, L. B. (2006). Cough and aspiration of food and liquids due to oral-pharyngeal dysphagia: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest, 129, 154S–168S.

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Assessment
Instrumental Examination in Adults

Alexander, C. M., Teller, L. E., & Gross, J. B. (1989). Principles of pulse oximetry: Theoretical and practical considerations. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 68, 368–376.

Aviv, J. E. (2000). Prospective, randomized outcome study of endoscopy versus modified barium swallow in patients with dysphagia. Laryngoscope, 110, 563–574.

Aviv, J. E., Kim, T., Thomson, J. E., Sunshine, S., Kaplin, S., & Close, L. E. (1998). Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing with sensory testing (FEESST) in healthy controls. Dysphagia, 13, 87–92.

Boiron, M., Rouleau, P. I., & Metman, E. H. (1997). Exploration of pharyngeal swallowing by audiosignal recording. Dysphagia, 12, 86–92.

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Chan, C. B., Chan, L. K., & Lam, H. S. (2002). Scattered radiation level during videofluoroscopy for swallowing study. Clinical Radiology, 57, 614–616.

Chicero, J. A., & Murdoch, B. E. (1998). The physiological cause of swallowing sounds: Answers from heart sounds to vocal tract acoustics. Dysphagia, 13, 39–52.

Collins, M. J., & Bakheit, A. M. (1997). Does pulse oximetry reliably detect aspiration in dysphagic stroke patients? Stroke, 28, 1773–1775.

Curtis, D. J., Cruess, D. F., Dachman, A. H., & Maso, E. (1984). Timing in the normal pharyngeal swallow: Prospective selection and evaluation of 16 normal asymptomatic patients. Investigative Radiology, 19, 523–529.

Dalton, C. B., & Castell, D. (1989). Esophageal motility disorders. In D. Gelfand & J. Richter (Eds.), Dysphagia diagnosis and treatment. Igaku Shein.

Daniels, S. K., McAdam, C. P., Brailey, K., & Foundas, A. L. (1997). Clinical assessment of swallowing and prediction of dysphagia severity. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 6, 17–24.

Dettelbach, M. A., Gross, R. D., Mahlmann, J., & Eibling, D. E. (1995). Effect of the Passy-Muir valve on aspiration in patients with tracheostomy. Head & Neck, 17, 297–302.

Doggett, D. L., Turkelson, C. M., & Coates, V. (2002). Recent developments in diagnosis and intervention for aspiration and dysphagia in stroke and other neuromuscular disorders. Current Atherosclerosis Reports, 4, 311–318.

Dooley, C. P., & Schwarz, W. H. (1987). Rheology and the swallow-safe bolus. Dysphagia, 1, 113–118.

Feinberg, M. J., Ekberg, O., Segall, L., & Tully, J. (1992). Deglutition in elderly patients with dementia: Findings of videofluorographic evaluation and impact on staging and management. Radiology, 183, 811–814.

Hedges, R. B., McLean, C. D., & Thompson, F. A. (1965). A cinefluorographic study of tongue patterns in function. The Angle Orthodontist, 35, 253–268.

Hildebrandt, G. H., Dominguez, B. L., Schork, M. A., & Loesche, W. J. (1997). Functional units, chewing, swallowing, and food avoidance among the elderly. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 77, 588–595.

Hinchey, J. A., Shephard, T., Furie, K., Smith, D., Wang, D., & Tonn, S. (2005). Formal dysphagia screening protocols prevent pneumonia. Stroke, 36, 1972–1976.

Langmore, S. E. (1998). Laryngeal sensation: A touchy subject. Dysphagia, 13, 93–94.

Langmore, S. E., & McCulloch, T. M. (1997). Examination of the pharynx and larynx and endoscopic examination of pharyngeal swallowing. In A. L. Perlman & K. S. Schulze-Delrieu (Eds.), Deglutition and its disorders (pp. 201–226). San Diego, CA: Singular.

Langmore, S. E., Schatz, K., & Olsen, N. (1988). Fiberoptic endoscopic examination of swallowing safety: A new procedure. Dysphagia, 2, 216–219.

Langmore, S. E., Schatz, K., & Olsen, N. (1991). A comparison of endoscopic and videofluoroscopic evaluations of swallowing. Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, 100, 678–681.

Langmore, S. E., Terpenning, M. S., Schork, A., Chen, Y., Murray, J. T., Lopatin, D., & Loesche, W. J. (1998). Predictors of aspiration pneumonia: How important is dysphagia? Dysphagia, 13, 69–81.

Leder, S. B., & Espinosa, J. F. (2002). Aspiration risk after acute stroke: Comparison of clinical examination and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. Dysphagia, 17, 214–218.

Li, M., Brasseur, J. G., Kern, M. K., & Dodds, W. J. (1992). Viscosity measurements of barium sulfate mixtures for use in motility studies of the pharynx and esophagus. Dysphagia, 7, 17–30.

Lim, S. H., Lieu, P. K., Phua, S. Y., Seshadri, R., Venketasubramanian, N., Lee, S. H., & Choo, P. W. (2001). Accuracy of bedside clinical methods compared with fiberoptic endoscopic examination of swallowing (FEES) in determining the risk of aspiration in acute stroke patients. Dysphagia, 16, 1–6.

Linden, P., & Siebens, A. A. (1983). Dysphagia: Predicting laryngeal penetration. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 64, 281–283.

Logemann, J. A. (1987). Criteria for studies of treatment for oropharyngeal dysphagia. Dysphagia, 1, 193–199.

Mann, G., Hankey, G. J., & Cameron, D. (1999). Swallowing function after stroke: Prognosis and prognostic factors at 6 months. Stroke, 30, 744–748.

Mann, L. L., & Wong, K. (1996). Development of an objective method of assessing viscosity of the formulated foods and beverages for the dysphagic diet. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 96, 585–588.

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McConnel, F., Cerenko, D., Hersh, T., & Weil, L. (1988). Evaluation of pharyngeal dysphagia with manofluorography. Dysphagia, 2, 187–195.

Mendelsohn, M., & McConnel, F. (1987). Function in the pharyngoesophageal segment. Laryngoscope, 97, 483–489.

Mosher, H. P., & MacMillan, A. S. (1927). X-ray study of movements of the tongue, epiglottis, and hyoid bone in swallowing. Laryngoscope, 153, 277–280.

Murray, J., Langmore, S. E., Ginsberg, S., & Dostie, A. (1996). The significance of accumulated oropharyngeal secretions and swallowing frequency in predicting aspiration. Dysphagia, 11, 99–103.

Olsson, R., Castell, J., Johnston, B., Ekberg, O., & Castell, D. O. (1997). Combined video-manometric identification of abnormalities related to pharyngeal retention. Academic Radiology, 4, 349–354.

Pelletier, C. A. (1997). A comparison of consistency and taste of five commercial thickeners. Dysphagia, 12, 74–78.

Perlman, P. W., Cohen, M. A., Setzen, M., Belafsky, P. C., Guss, J., Mattucci, K. F., & Ditkoff, M. (2004). The risk of aspiration of pureed food as determined by flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing with sensory testing. Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, 130, 80–83.

Pinkus, N. (1973). The dangers of oral feeding in the presence of cuffed tracheostomy tubes. Medical Journal of Australia, 1, 1238–1240.

Robbins, J., Sufit, R. L., Rosenbek, J. C., Levine, R., & Hyland, M. S. (1987). A modification of the modified barium swallow. Dysphagia, 2, 83–86.

Rosenbek, J. C., Robbins, J., Roecker, E. V, Coyle, J. L., & Woods, J. L. (1996). A penetration-aspiration scale. Dysphagia, 11, 93–98.

Ryu, J. S., Park, S. R., & Choi, K. H. (2004). Prediction of laryngeal aspiration using voice analysis. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 83, 753–757.

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Management of Dysphagia in Adults

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Nutrition

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Ethics

Ackerman, T. F. (1996). The moral implications of medical uncertainty: Tube feeding demented patients. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 44, 1265–1267.

ASHA Ad Hoc Committee on Dysphagia. (1987, April). Ad Hoc Committee on Dysphagia report. Asha, 29(4), 57–58.

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Efficacy

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2005). Focused Initiative: Evidence-based practice. Available from http://www.asha.org/about/leadership-projects/national-office/focused-initiatives/05-archive/.

Diagnosis and treatment of swallowing disorders (dysphagia) in acute-care stroke patients. (1999, July). Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 8. (Prepared by ECRI Evidence-Based Practice Center under Contract No. 290-97-0020.) AHCPR Publication No. 99-E024. Rockville, MD: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research.

Doggett, D. L., Tappe, K. A., Mitchell, M. D., Chapell, R., Coates, V., & Turkelson, C. M. (2001). Prevention of pneumonia in elderly stroke patients by systematic diagnosis and treatment of dysphagia: An evidence-based comprehensive analysis of the literature. Dysphagia, 16, 279–295.

Miller, R. M., & Langmore, S. E. (1994). Treatment efficacy for adults with oropharyngeal dysphagia. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 75, 1256–1262.

Rosenbek, J. C. (1995). Efficacy in dysphagia. Dysphagia, 10, 263–267.

Waters, T. M., Logemann, J. A., Pauloski, B.R., Rademaker, A. W., Lazarus, C. L., Newman, L. A., & Hamner, A. K. (2004). Beyond efficacy and effectiveness: Conducting economic analyses during clinical trials. Dysphagia, 19, 109–119.

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Multimedia Product Offerings

ASHA Professional Development
Master Clinician Series
  • The Dysphagia Evaluation: Consultation to Instrumental Exam (video)

    • by J. Murray and E. Callaway

  • Therapeutic Interventions for Dysphagia (video)

    • by J. Logemann

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Other Products
  • Radiographic Interpretation of Swallowing Disorders (CD-ROM)

    • by B. Martin-Harris

  • FEES: Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing (video)

    • by S. Langmore

  • Treatment of Dysphagia in Adults (video)

    • by B. Martin-Harris

  • Medically Fragile Adults: Issues in Evaluation and Treatment (CD-ROM)

    • by B. Sonies, J. Robbins, and P. Sullivan

  • The SWAL-QOL and SWAL-CARE Outcome Tools for Dysphagia (video)

    • by C. McHorney and J. Robbins

  • Interpreting X-Ray Swallow Studies and Planning Treatment (audio CD)

    • by J. Logemann

  • Radiation Safety for Speech-Language Pathologists

    • Division 13 Newsletters

  • Dysphagia: State of the Clinical Examination

    • Division 13 Newsletters

  • Setting the Stage: Clinical Practice in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (video)

    • by C. Shaker

  • Pediatric Dysphagia: Management Challenges (video)

    • by J. Arvedson and B. Rogers

  • Pediatric Feeding and Swallowing: Assessment and Treatment Programming (video)

    • by R. Alexander

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Telephone Replays
  • Standardizing Dysphagia Diets: The National Dysphagia Diet and Other Considerations (audio CD)

    by G. McCullough, C. Pelletier, C. Steele, and P. Sullivan

  • Dysphagia in the Schools: An Interdisciplinary Team Approach

    by E. Horner and J. Arvedson

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Videotapes and Manuals
  • Pediatric Dysphagia Management Challenges (4 hour video)

    by J. Arvedson and B. Rogers

  • Pediatric Feeding and Swallowing Assessment and Treatment Programming (2 hour video)

    by R. Alexander

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Video Seminars From Clinician's View (ASHA Approved CE Provider)
  • ABC's of Pediatric Feeding and Swallowing, Modules I–V

    by R. Alexander, R. Beecher, M. Wojcik, L. Kliebahn, C. Cayo, M. Kirby, et al.

  • Focus on the Rib Cage for Improvement of Respiration, Phonation, Postural Control and Movement in Children

    by R. Alexander

  • ABC's of Pediatric Swallowing—modules

    by R. Alexander and B. Beecher

  • Sensory aspects and NDT Treatment for Feeding Disorders

    by M. Trapani Hanasewych and D. Law

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References for Pediatric Dysphagia

Pediatric Journals

  • American Journal of Diseases of Children

  • American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology

  • Appetite

  • Archives of Otolaryngology

  • Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine

  • Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  • The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal

  • Clinical Nutrition

  • Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology

  • Dysphagia

  • Infant-Toddler Intervention

  • Infants and Young Children

  • Journal of the American Dietetic Association

  • Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics

  • Journal of Medical Speech-Language Pathology

  • Journal of Neurological Rehabilitation

  • Journal of Neurophysiology

  • Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition

  • Journal of Pediatric Nursing

  • Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology

  • Journal of Pediatrics

  • Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health

  • Journal of Speech and Hearing Research/Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research

  • Lancet

  • Laryngoscope

  • Nursing Research

  • Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery

  • Pediatric Neurology

  • Pediatrics

  • Seminars in Speech and Language

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General Texts on Feeding, Oral Motor Function, and Swallowing

Arvedson, J. C., & Brodsky, L. (2002). Pediatric swallowing and feeding: Assessment and management (2nd ed.). Albany, NY: Singular.

Arvedson, J. C., & Lefton-Greif, M. (1998). Pediatric videofluoroscopic swallow studies: A professional manual with caregiver guidelines. San Antonio, TX: Communication Skill Builders.

Bosma, J. (1986). Anatomy of the infant head. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Cherney, L. R. (Ed.). (1994). Clinical management of dysphagia in adults and children (2nd ed.). Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen.

Kessler, D. B., & Dawson, P. (1999). Failure to thrive and pediatric undernutrition: A transdisciplinary approach. Baltimore: Brookes.

Langley, M. B., & Lombardino, L. J. (Eds.). (1991). Neurodevelopmental strategies for managing communication disorders in children with severe motor dysfunction. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Morris, S. E., & Klein, M. (2000). Pre-feeding skills (2nd ed.). Tucson, AZ: Therapy Skill Builders.

Rosenthal, S. R., Shepherd, J. J., & Lotze, M. (1994). Dysphagia and the child with developmental disabilities: Medical, clinical and family intervention. San Diego, CA: Singular.

Tuchman, D. N., & Walter, R. S. (Eds.). (1994). Disorders of feeding and swallowing in infants and children: Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. San Diego, CA: Singular.

Wolf, L. S., & Glass, R. P. (1992). Feeding and swallowing disorders in infancy: Assessment and management. Tucson, AZ: Therapy Skill Builders.

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Other Suggested Texts on Pediatric Dysphagia

Beck, F., Moffat, D. B., & Davies, D. P. (1985). Human embryology. Oxford, United Kingdom: Blackwell Scientific.

Capute, A. J., & Accardo, P. J. (Eds.). (1996). Developmental disabilities in infancy and childhood (2nd ed.). Baltimore: Brookes.

Eisenberg, A., Murkoff, H., & Hathaway, S. E. (2003). What to expect the first year. New York: Workman.

Fenichel, G. M. (1990). Neonatal neurology. New York: Churchill Livingstone.

Moore, K. L. (1988). The developing human: Clinically oriented embryology. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

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Development of Feeding and Swallowing

Arvedson, J. C., & Lefton-Greif, M. A. (1996). Anatomy, physiology and development of feeding. Seminars in Speech and Language, 17, 261–268.

Bazyk, S. (1990). Factors associated with the transition to oral feedings in infants fed by nasogastric tubes. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 44, 1070–1078.

Biancuzzo, M. (1999). Breast-feeding a newborn: Clinical strategies in nursing. St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

Birch, L. L. (1998). Development of food acceptance patterns in the first years of life. Proceedings of the Nutritional Society, 57, 617–624.

Bosma, J. F. (1986). Development of feeding. Clinical Nutrition, 5, 210–218.

Brookes, M., & Zietman, A. (1998). Clinical embryology: A color atlas and text. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Bu'Lock, F., Woolridge, M. W., & Baum, J. D. (1990). Development of coordination of sucking, swallowing and breathing: Ultrasound study of term and preterm infants. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 32, 669–678.

Byard, R. W., Gallard, V., Johnson, A., Barbour, J., Bonython-Wright, B., & Bonython-Wright, D. (1996). Safe feeding practices for infants and young children. Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health, 32, 327–329.

Cox, D. R., Skinner, J. D., Carruth, B., Moran, J., & Houck, K. (1997). A food variety index for toddlers (VIT): Development and application. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 97, 1382–1388.

Dietz, W. H., & Stern, L. (1999). American Academy of Pediatrics guide to your child's nutrition: Making peace at the table and building healthy eating habits for life. New York: Villard.

Green, J. R., Moore, C. A., Ruark, J. L., Rodda, P. R., Morvee, W. T., & VanWitzenburg, M. J. (1997). Development of chewing in children from 12 to 48 months: Longitudinal study of EMG patterns. Journal of Neurophysiology, 77, 2704–2716.

Gryboski, J. (1975). Suck and swallow. In A. J. Schaffer & M. Markowitz (Eds.), Gastrointestinal problems in the infant (pp. 17–47). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

Hagberg, C., Larson, O., & Milerad, J. (1998). Incidence of cleft lip and palate and risks of additional malformations. Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal, 35, 40–45.

Herbst, J. J. (1989). Development of suck and swallow. In R. Lebenthal (Ed.), Human gastrointestinal development. New York: Raven Press.

Lawrence, R. A, & Lawrence, R. M. (2005). Breastfeeding: A guide for the medical profession (6th ed.). St Louis, MO: Mosby.

McCain, G. C. (1995). Promotion of preterm infant nipple feeding with non-nutritive sucking. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 10, 3–8.

Newman, J., & Pitman, T. (2000). The ultimate breastfeeding book of answers. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Prima.

Orenstein, S. R., Giarrusso, V. A., Proujansky, R., & Kocoshis, S. A. (1988). The Santmyer swallow: A new and useful infant reflex. Lancet, 1, 345–346.

Pearcey, S. M., & De Castro, J. M. (1997). Food intake and meal patterns of one year old infants. Appetite, 29, 201–212.

Pickler, R. H., Frankel, H. B., Walsh, K. M., & Thompson, N. M. (1996). Effects of nonnutritive sucking on behavioral organization and feeding performance in preterm infants. Nursing Research, 45, 132–135.

Pridham, K., Kosorok, M. R., Greer, F., Carey, P., Kayata, S., & Sondel, S. (1999). The effects of prescribed versus ad libitum feedings and formula caloric density on premature infant dietary intake and weight gain. Nursing Research, 48, 86–93.

Reau, N. R., Senturia, Y. D., Lebailly, S. A., & Christoffel, K. K. (1996). Infant and toddler feeding patterns and problems: Normative data and a new direction. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 17, 149–153.

Selley, W. G., Ellis, R. E., Flack, F. C., & Brooks, W. A. (1990). Coordination of sucking, swallowing and breathing in the newborn: Its relationship to infant feeding and normal development. British Journal of Disorders of Communication, 25, 311–327.

Skinner, J. D., Carruth, B. R., Houck, K. S., Bounds, W., Morris, M., Cox, D. R., et al. (1999). Longitudinal study of nutrient and food intakes of White preschool children aged 24 to 60 months. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 99, 1514–1521.

Skinner, J. D., Carruth, B. R., Houck, K. S., Coletta, F., Cotter, R., Ott, D., & McLeod, M. (1997). Longitudinal study of nutrient and food intakes of infants aged 2 to 24 months. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 97, 496–504.

Skinner, J. D., Carruth, B. R., Houck, K. S., Moran, J., Coletta, F., Cotter, R., et al. (1997). Transitions in infant feeding during the first year of life. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 16, 209–215.

Stevenson, R. D., & Allaire, J. H. (1991). The development of normal feeding and swallowing. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 38, 1439–1453.

Wolff, P. H. (1968). The serial organization of sucking in the young infant. Pediatrics, 42, 943–956.

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Assessment of Feeding, Oral Motor, and Swallowing Function

Alexander, R. P. (1983). Developing prespeech and feeding abilities in children. In S. J. Shanks (Ed.), Nursing and the management of pediatric communication Disorders. San Diego, CA: College Hill Press.

Arvedson, J. C., & Lefton-Greif, M. A. (1998). Pediatric videofluorographic swallow studies: A professional manual with caregiver guidelines. San Antonio, TX: Communication Skill Builders.

Arvedson, J. C., & Rogers, B. T. (1993). Pediatric swallowing and feeding disorders. Journal of Medical Speech-Language Pathology, 1, 203–221.

Bier, J. B., Ferguson, A., Cho, C., Oh, W., & Vohr, B. R. (1993). Oral motor development of low-birth-weight infants who underwent orotracheal intubation during the neonatal period. American Journal of Children, 147, 858–862.

Bosma, J. F. (1990). Evaluation and therapy of impairments of suckle and transitional feeding. Journal of Neurological Rehabilitation, 4, 79–84.

Derkay, C., & Schechter, G. (1998). Anatomy and physiology of pediatric swallowing disorders. Dysphagia, 31, 397–404.

Gisel, E. G. (1991). Effect of food texture on the development of chewing of children between 6 months and 2 years of age. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 33, 69–79.

Gisel, E. G., Alphonse, E., & Ramsay, M. (2000). Assessment of ingestive and oral praxis skills: Children with cerebral palsy vs. controls. Dysphagia, 15, 236–244.

Gisel, E. G., & Patrick, J. (1988). Identification of children with cerebral palsy unable to maintain a normal nutritional stage. Lancet, 1, 283–286.

Glass, R. P., & Wolf, L. S. (1998). Feeding and oral motor skills. In J. Case-Smith (Ed.), Pediatric occupational therapy and early intervention (2nd ed., pp. 127–163). Woburn, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Halstead, L. A. (1999). Role of gastroesophageal reflux in pediatric upper airway disorders. Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, 120, 208–214.

Herman, M. J. (1991). Comprehensive assessment of oral-motor dysfunction in failure-to-thrive infants. Infant-Toddler Intervention, 1, 109–123.

Huggins, P. S., Tuomi, S. K., & Young, C. (1999). Effects of nasogastric tubes on the young, normal swallowing mechanism. Dysphagia, 14, 157–161.

Humphry, R. (1991). Impact of feeding problems on the parent-infant relationship. Infants and Young Children, 3, 30–38.

Jelm, J. M. (1990). Oral-Motor Feeding Rating Scale. Tucson, AZ: Therapy Skill Builders.

Kannan, S., Carruth, B. R., & Skinner, J. (1999). Cultural influences on infant feeding beliefs of mothers. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 91, 88–90.

Kenny, D., Koheil, R., Greenberg, J., Reid, D., Miner, M., Roman, R., & Judd, P. (1989). Development of a multidisciplinary feeding profile for children who are dependent feeders. Dysphagia, 4, 16–28.

Kessler, D. B., & Dawson, P. (1999). Failure to thrive and pediatric undernutrition: A transdisciplinary approach. Baltimore: Brookes.

Koontz-Lowman, D., & Lane, S. J. (1999). Children with feeding and nutritional problems. In S. M. Porr & E. B. Raineville (Eds.), Pediatric therapy: A systems approach (pp. 379–423). Philadelphia: F. A. Davis.

Kosko, J. R., Moser, J. D., Erhart, N., & Tunkel, D. E. (1998). Differential diagnosis of dysphagia in children. Otolaryngology Clinics of North America, 31, 435–451.

Kovar, A. J. (1997). Nutrition assessment and management of pediatric dysphagia. Seminars in Speech and Language, 18, 39–49.

Kramer, S. S., & Eicher, P. M. (1993). The evaluation of pediatric feeding abnormalities. Dysphagia, 8, 215–224.

Lawrence, R. A., & Lawrence, R. M. (1999). Breast feeding: A guide for the medical professional. St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

Mathew, O. P. (1988). Nipple units for newborn infants: A functional comparison. Pediatrics, 81, 688–691.

Mathisen, B., Worrall, L., Masel, J., Wall, C., & Shepherd, R. (1999). Feeding problems in infants with gastro-esophageal reflux disease: A controlled study. Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health, 35(2), 163–169.

Palmer, M. M., Crawley, K., & Blanco, I. A. (1993). Neonatal Oral-motor Assessment Scale: A reliability study. Journal of Perinatology, 1, 28–35.

Reilly, S., Skuse, D., & Wolke, D. (2000). Schedule for Oral-Motor Assessment. London: Whurr.

Thoyre, S. M., Shaker, C. S., & Pridham, K. F. (2005). The Early Feeding Skills Assessment for preterm infants. Neonatal Network, 24, 7–16.

Tuchman, D. (1988). Dysfunctional swallowing in the pediatric patient: Clinical considerations. Dysphagia, 2, 203–208.

Weiss, M. H. (1988). Dysphagia in infants. Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America, 21, 727–735.

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Instrumental Assessment

Arvedson, J., Rogers, B., Buck, G., Smart, P., & Msall, M. (1994). Silent aspiration prominent in children with dysphagia. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 28, 173–181.

Bosma, J. F., Hepburn, L. G., Josell, S.D., & Baker, K. (1990). Ultrasound demonstration of tongue motions during suckle feeding. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 32, 223–229.

Bu'Lock, F., Woolridge, M. W., & Baum, J. D. (1990). Development of coordination of sucking, swallowing and breathing: Ultrasound study of term and preterm infants. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 32, 669–678.

Eicher, P. S., McDonald-McGinn, D. M., Fox, C. A., Driscoll, D. A., Emanuel, B. S., & Zackai, E. H. (2000). Dysphagia in children with 22q11.2 deletion: Unusual pattern found on modified barium swallow. Journal of Pediatrics, 137, 158–164.

Griggs, C. A., Jones, P. M., & Lee, R. E. (1989). Videofluoroscopic investigation of feeding disorders in children with multiple handicap. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 31, 303–308.

Heyman, S., Eicher, P. S., & Alavi, A. (1995). Radionuclide studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract in children with feeding disorders. Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 36, 351–354.

Heyman, S., & Respondek, M. (1989). Detection of pulmonary aspiration in children by radionuclide “salivagram”. Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 30, 697–699.

Kramer, S. S. (1985). Special swallowing problems in children. Gastrointestinal Radiology, 10, 241–250.

Kramer, S. S. (1989). Radiologic examination of the swallowing impaired child. Dysphagia, 3, 117–125.

Leder, S. B. (1998). Serial fiberoptic endoscopic swallowing evaluations in the management of patients with dysphagia. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 79, 1264–1269.

Leder, S. B., & Karas, D. E. (2000). Fiberoptic endoscoptic evaluation of swallowing in the pediatric population. Laryngoscope, 110, 1132–1136.

Logemann, J. A. (1997). Role of the modified barium swallow in management of patients with dysphagia. Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, 116, 335–338.

McVeagh, P., Howman-Giles, R., & Kemp, A. (1987). Pulmonary aspiration studied by radionuclide milk scanning and barium swallow roentgenography. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 141, 917–921.

Mirrett, P. L., Riski, J. E., Glascott, J., & Johnson, V. (1994). Videofluoroscopic assessment of dysphagia in children with severe spastic cerebral palsy. Dysphagia, 9, 174–179.

Morton, R. E., Bonas, R., Fourie, B., & Minford, J. (1993). Videofluoroscopy in the assessment of feeding disorders of children with neurological problems. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 35, 388–395.

Newman, L. A., Cleveland, R. H., Blickman, J. G., Hillman, R. E., & Jaramillo, D. (1991). Videofluoroscopic analysis of the infant swallow. Investigative Radiology, 26, 870–873.

Vice, F. L., Heinz, J. M., Giuriati, G., Hood, M., & Bosma, J. F. (1990). Cervical auscultation of suckle feeding in newborn infants. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 32, 760–768.

Willging, J. P. (1995). Endoscopic evaluation of swallowing in children. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 32(Suppl.), S107–S108.

Wu, C. H., Hsiao, T. Y., Chen, J. C., Chang, Y. C., & Lee, S. Y. (1997). Evaluation of swallowing safety with fiberoptic endoscope: Comparison with videofluoroscopic technique. Laryngoscope, 107, 396–401.

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Management of Feeding, Oral-Motor, and Swallowing Impairments

Alexander, R. (1987). Oral-motor treatment for infants and young children with cerebral palsy. Seminars in Speech and Language, 8, 87–100.

Arvedson, J. C. (1998). Management of pediatric dysphagia. Otolaryngology Clinics of North America, 3, 453–476.

Bailey, R. L., & Angell, M. E. (2004). Critical components of effective school-based feeding improvement programs. Physical disabilities: Education and related services, 23, 19–32.

Blasco, P. A., & Allaire, J. H. (1992). Drooling in the developmentally disabled: Management practices and recommendations. Consortium on drooling. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 34, 849–862.

Blasco, P. A., & Stansbury, J. C. (1996). Glycopyrolate treatment of chronic drooling. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 150, 932–935.

Clark, H. M., Henson, P. A., Barber, W. D., Stierwalt, J. A., & Sherrill, M. (2003). Relationships among subjective and objective measures of tongue strength and oral phase swallowing impairments. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 12, 40–50.

Comrie, J. D., & Helm, J. M. (1997). Common feeding problems in the intensive care nursery: Maturation, organization, evaluation, and management strategies. Seminars in Speech and Language, 18, 239–260.

Dahl, M., Thommessen, M., Rasmussen, M., & Selberg, T. (1996). Feeding and nutritional characteristics in children with moderate or severe cerebral palsy. Acta Paediatrca, 85, 697–701.

Eicher, P. S. (2001). Nutrition and feeding. In M. L. Batshaw (Ed.), When your child has a disability: The complete sourcebook of daily and medical care (pp. 85–97). Baltimore: Brookes.

Gaebler, C. P., & Hanzlik, J. R. (1996). The effects of a prefeeding stimulation program on preterm infants. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 50, 184–192.

Gallender, D. (1979). Eating handicaps: Illustrated techniques for feeding disorders. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Gisel, E. G. (1994). Oral-motor skills following sensorimotor intervention in the moderately eating-impaired child with cerebral palsy. Dysphagia, 9, 180–192.

Gisel, E. G., & Alphonce, E. (1995). Classification of eating impairments based on eating efficiency in children with cerebral palsy. Dysphagia, 10, 268–274.

Harris, M. (1986). Oral-motor management of the high-risk neonate. Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 6, 231–253.

HeIfrich-Miller, K. R., Rector, K. L., & Straka, J. A. (1986). Dysphagia: Its treatment in the profoundly retarded patient with cerebral palsy. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 67, 520–525.

Inder, T. E., & Volpe, J. J. (1998). Recovery of congenital isolated pharyngeal dysfunction: Implications for early management. Pediatric Neurology, 9, 222–224.

Korner, A. F. (1990). Infant stimulation: Issues of theory and research. Clinics in Perinatology, 17, 173–184.

Krick, J., Murphy-Miller, P., Zeger, S., & Wright, E. (1996). Pattern of growth in children with cerebral palsy. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 96, 680–685.

Lazarus, C. L., Logemann, J. A., Huang, C. F., & Rademaker, A. W. (2003). Effects of two types of tongue strengthening exercises in young normals. Folia Phoniatrica, 55, 199–205.

Mathisen, B., Skuse, D., Wolke, D., & Reilly, S. (1989). Oral motor dysfunction and failure to thrive among inner city infants. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 31, 293–302.

Morris, S. E. (1985). Developmental implications for the management of feeding problems in neurologically impaired infants. Seminars in Speech and Language, 6, 293–315.

Morris, S. E. (1989). Development of oral-motor skills in the neurologically impaired child receiving nonoral feedings. Dysphagia, 3, 135–154.

Morris, S. E., & Klein, M. D. (1987). Pre-feeding skills. Tucson, AZ: Therapy Skill Builders.

Mueller, H. (1987). Feeding. In N. Finne (Ed.), Handling the young cerebral palsied child at home. New York: E.P. Dutton.

Rogers, B., Arvedson, J., Buck, G., Smart, P., & Msall, M. (1994). Characteristics of dysphagia in children with cerebral palsy. Dysphagia, 9, 69–73.

Satter, E. (1990). The feeding relationship: Problems and interventions. Journal of Pediatrics, 117, S181–S189.

Schwartz, S. M., Corredor, J., & Fisher-Medina, J. (2001). Diagnosis and treatment of feeding disorders in children with developmental disabilities. Pediatrics, 108, 671–676.

Shaker, C. S. (1999). Nipple feeding preterm infants: An individualized, developmentally supportive approach. Neonatal Network, 18(3), 15–22.

Spatz, D. (2004). Ten steps for promoting and protecting breastfeeding for vulnerable infants. Journal of Perinatal and Neonatal Nursing, 18, 385–396.

Stevenson, R. D. (1995). Feeding and nutrition in children with developmental disabilities. Pediatric Annals, 24, 255–260.

Sullivan, P. B., & Rosenbloom, L. (Eds.). (1996). Clinics in developmental medicine: No.140. Feeding the disabled child. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Tilton, A. H., Miller, M. D., & Khosho, V. (1998). Nutrition and swallowing in pediatric neuromuscular patients. Seminars in Pediatric Neurology, 5, 106–115.

Trenouth, M. J., & Campbell, A. N. (1996). Questionnaire evaluation of feeding methods for cleft lip and palate neonates. International Journal of Pediatric Dentistry, 6, 241–244.

Warner, J. (1981). Helping the handicapped child with early feeding. Winslow, Buckingham, England: Winslow Press.

Ylvisaker, M., & Weinstein, M. (1989). Recovery of oral feeding after pediatric injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 4, 51–63.

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Craniofacial, Laryngeal, and Pulmonary Management

Abraham, S. S., & Wolf, E. L. (2000). Swallowing physiology of toddlers with long-term tracheostomies: A preliminary study. Dysphagia, 15, 206–212.

Arvedson, J. C., & Brodsky, L. S. (1996). Mobius syndrome: A case study of successful oral feeding with multiple cranial nerve anomalies . Paper presented at the 24th annual conference of the Society of Ear, Nose, & Throat Advances in Children (SENTAC), Cincinnati, OH.

Bamford, O., Taciak, V., & Gewolb, I. H. (1992). The relationship between rhythmic swallowing and breathing during suckle feeding in term neonates. Pediatric Research, 31, 619–624.

Bonilla, J. A., Pizzuti, M., Brodsky, L., & Brody, A. (1998). Aplasia of the epiglottis: A rare congenital anomaly. Ear, Nose and Throat Journal, 77, 51–55.

Bandla, H. P., Davis, S. H., & Hopkins, N. E. (1999). Lipoid pneumonia: A silent complication of mineral oil aspiration. Pediatrics, 103, E19.

Carneol, S. O., Marks, S. M., & Weik, L. (1999). The speech-language pathologist: Key role in the diagnosis of velocardiofacial syndrome. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 8, 23–32.

Carr, M., & Brodsky, L. (1999). Severe non-obstructive sleep disturbance as an initial presentation of gastroesophageal reflux disease. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 51, 115–120.

Carr, M., Nguyen, A., Poje, C., Pizzuti, M., Nagy, M., & Brodsky, L. (2000). Correlation of findings on direct laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy with the presence of extraesophageal reflux disease. The Laryngeoscope, 110, 1560–1562.

Casas, M. J., Kenny, D. J., & McPherson, K. A. (1994). Swallowing/ventilation interactions during oral swallow in normal children and children with cerebral palsy. Dysphagia, 9, 40–46.

Glass, R. P., & Wolf, L. S. (1999). Feeding management of infants with cleft lip and palate and micrognathia. Infants and Young Children, 12, 70–81.

Kerwin, M. E., Osborne, M., & Eicher, P. S. (1994). Effect of position and support on oral-motor skills of a child with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Clinical Pediatrics, 33, 8–13.

Loughlin, G. M. (1989). Respiratory consequences of dysfunctional swallowing and aspiration. Dysphagia, 3, 126–130.

Loughlin, G. M., & Lefton-Greif, M. A. (1994). Dysfunctional swallowing and respiratory disease in children. Advances in Pediatrics, 41, 135–162.

Majnemer, A., Riley, P., Shevell, M., Birnbaum, R., Greenstone, H., & Coates, A. L. (2000). Severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia increases risk for later neurological and motor sequelae in preterm survivors. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 42, 53–60.

Maloney, J. P., Ryan, T. A., Brasel, K. J., Binion, D. G., Johnson, D. R., Halbower, A. C., et al. (2002). Food dye use in enteral feedings: A review and call for a moratorium. Nutrition in Clinical Practice, 17, 169–181.

Mathew, O. P., Clark, M. L., Pronske, M. L., Luna-Solazano, H. G., & Peterson, M. D. (1985). Breathing pattern and ventilation during oral feeding in term newborn infants. Journal of Pediatrics, 106, 810–813.

McPherson, K. A., Kenny, D. J., Hoheil, R., Bablich, K., Sochaniwskyj, A., & Miner, M. (1992). Ventilation and swallowing interactions of normal children and children with cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 34, 577–588.

Nielsen, D. W., Heldt, G. P., & Tooley, W. H. (1990). Stridor and gastroesophageal reflux in infants. Pediatrics, 85, 1034–1039.

Osuji, O. O. (1995). Preparation of feeding obturators for infants with cleft lip and palate. Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry, 19, 211–214.

Rogers, B., Arvedson, J. C., Msall, M., & Demerath, R. (1993). Hypoxemia during oral feeding of children with severe cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 35, 3–10.

Rosen, C. L., Glaze, D. C., & Frost, J. D. (1984). Hypoxemia associated with feeding in the preterm infant and full-term neonate. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 138, 623–628.

Rosingh, H. J., & Peek, S. H. (1999). Swallowing and speech in infants following tracheostomy. Acta Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Belgica, 53, 59–63.

Shprintzen, R. (1988). Pierre Robin, micrognathia, and airway obstruction: The dependency of treatment on accurate diagnosis. International Anesthesiology Clinics, 26, 64–71.

Simon, B., & McGowen, J. (1989). Tracheostomy in young children: Implications for assessment and treatment of communication and feeding disorders. Infants and Young Children, 1, 1–9.

Singer, L. T., Davillier, M., Preuss, L., Szekely, L., Hawkins, S., Yamashita, T., & Baley, J. (1996). Feeding interactions in infants with very low birth weight and bronchopulmonary dysphasia. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 17, 69–76.

Timms, B. J., DeFiore, J. M., Martin, R. J., & Miller, M. J. (1993). Increased respiratory drive as an inhibitor of oral feeding of preterm infants. Journal of Pediatrics, 123, 127–131.

Tomanski, S. M., Zalzal, G. H., & Saal, H. M. (1995). Airway obstruction in the Pierre Robin sequence. Laryngoscope, 105, 111–114.

Vegter, F., Hage, J. J., & Mulder, J. W. (1999). Pierre Robin syndrome: Mandibular growth during the first year of life. Annals of Plastic Surgery, 42, 154–157.

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Pediatric Gastroenterology/Nutrition

Ahmed, T., & Fuchs, G. J. (1997). Gastrointestinal allergy to food: A review. Journal of Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, 15, 211–223.

Albanese, C. L., Towbin, R. B., Ulman, T., Lewis, J., & Smith, S. D. (1993). Percutaneous gastrojejunostomy versus Nissen fundoplication for enteral feeding of the neurologically impaired child with gastroesophageal reflux. Journal of Pediatrics, 123, 371–375.

Alexander, F., Wyllie, R., Jirousek, K., Secic, M., & Porvasnik, S. (1997). Delayed gastric emptying affects outcome of Nissen fundoplication in neurologically impaired children. Surgery, 122, 690–698.

American Academy of Pediatric Medicine Committee on Nutrition. (1985). Nutritional needs of low-birth-weight infants. Pediatrics, 75, 976–986.

American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Nutrition. (2000). Hypoallergenic infant formulas. Pediatrics, 106, 346–349.

Baer, M., Maki, M., Nurminen, J., Turjanmaa, V., Pukander, J., & Vesikari, T. (1986). Esophagitis and findings of long-term esophageal pH recording in children with repeated lower respiratory tract symptoms. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 5, 187–190.

Bagwell, C. E. (1995). Gastroesophageal reflux in children. Surgery Annual, 27, 133–163.

Balson, B. M., Kravitz, E. K., & McGeady, S. J. (1998). Diagnosis and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux in children and adolescents with severe asthma. Annals of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology, 81, 159–164.

Bernbaum, J. C., Pereira, G. R., Watkins, J. B., & Peckham, G. J. (1983). Nonnutritive sucking during gavage feeding enhances growth and maturation in premature infants. Pediatrics, 71, 41–45.

Borowitz, S. M., & Borowitz, K. C. (1997). Gastrointestinal reflux in babies: Impact on growth and development. Infants and Young Children, 10, 14–26.

Borowitz, S. M., & Borowitz, K. C. (1997). Oral dysfunction following Nissen fundoplication. Dysphagia, 7, 234–237.

Brady, M. S., Richard, K. A., Fitzgerald, J. F., & Lemons, J. A. (1996). Specialized formulas and feedings for infants with malabsorption or formula intolerance. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 86, 191–200.

Bustorff-Silva, J., Fonkalssrud, E. W., Perez, C. A., Quintero, R., Martin, L., Villasenor, E., & Atkinson, J. B. (1999). Gastric emptying procedures decrease the risk of postoperative recurrent reflux in children with delayed gastric emptying. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 34, 79–83.

Catto-Smith, A. G., Machida, H., Butzner, J. D., Gall, D. G., & Scott, R. B. (1991). The role of gastroesophageal reflux in pediatric dysphagia. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 12, 155–165.

Dietz, W. H. (1987). Nutritional requirements and feeding of the handicapped child. In R. Grand, J. Sutphen, & W. H. Dietz (Eds.), Pediatric nutrition: CL Theory and Practice. Boston: Butterworths.

Eicher, P. S. (2001). Nutrition and feeding. In M. L. Batshaw (Ed.), When your child has a disability: The complete sourcebook of daily and medical care (pp. 85–97). Baltimore: Brookes.

Field, T., Ignatoff, E., Stringer, S., Brennan, J., Greenberg, R., Widmayer, S., & Anderson, C. C. (1982). Nonnutritive sucking during tube feedings: Effects on preterm neonates in an intensive care unit. Pediatrics, 70, 381–384.

Fonkalsrud, E. W., Ellis, D. G., Shaw, A., Mann, C. M., Black, T. L., Miller, J. P., & Snyder, C. L. (1995). A combined hospital experience with fundoplication and gastric emptying procedure for gastroesophageal reflux in children. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 180, 449–455.

Freeman, J. M., Kelly, M. T., & Freeman, J. B. (1996). The epilepsy diet treatment: An introduction to the ketogenic diet. New York: Demos Publications.

Fried, M. D., Khoshoo, V., Secker, D. J., Gilday, D. L., Ash, J. M., & Pencharz, P. B. (1992). Decrease in gastric emptying time and episodes of regurgitation in children with spastic quadriplegia fed a whey-based formula. Journal of Pediatrics, 120, 569–572.

Heyman, S., Eicher, P. S., & Alavi, A. (1995). Radionuclide studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract in children with feeding disorders. Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 36, 351–354.

Kovar, A. J. (1997). Nutrition assessment and management in pediatric dysphagia. Seminars in Speech and Language, 18, 5–11.

Matthews, B. L., Little, J. P, McGuirt, W. F., & Koufman, J. A. (1999). Reflux in infants with laryngomalacia: Results of 24-hour double-probe pH monitoring. Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, 120, 860–864.

Meyers, W. F., Roberts, C. C., Johnson, D. C., & Herbst, J. J. (1985). Value of tests for evaluation of gastroesophageal reflux in children. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 20, 515–520.

Mollitt, D. L., Colladay, E. S., & Seibert, J. J. (1985). Symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux following gastrostomy in neurologically impaired patients. Pediatrics, 75, 1124–1126.

Orenstein, S. R., Magill, H. L., & Brooks, P. (1987). Thickening of infant feedings for therapy of gastroesophageal reflux. Journal of Pediatrics, 110, 181–186.

Orenstein, S. R., & Orenstein, D. M. (1988). Gastroesophageal reflux and respiratory disease in children. Journal of Pediatrics, 112, 847–858.

Putman, P. E. (1997). Gastroesophageal reflux disease and dysphagia in children. Seminars in Speech and Language, 18, 25–37.

Rempel, G. R., Colwell, S. O., & Nelson, R. P. (1988). Growth in children with cerebral palsy fed via gastrostomy. Pediatrics, 82, 857–862.

Sears, W., & Sears, M. (1999). The family nutrition book: Everything you need to know about feeding your children—from birth through adolescence. Boston: Little, Brown.

Shannon, R. (1993). Gastroesophageal reflux in infancy: Review and update. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 7, 71–76.

Shapiro, B. K., Green, P., Wick, J., Allen, D., & Capute, A. J. (1986). Growth of severely impaired children: Neurological versus nutritional factors. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 28, 729–733.

Stallings, V. A., Charney, E. B., Davies, J. C., & Cronk, C. C. (1993). Nutritional-related growth failure of children with quadriplegic cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 35, 126–138.

Stark, L. J. (1999). Commentary: Beyond feeding problems. The challenge of meeting dietary recommendations in the treatment of chronic diseases in pediatrics. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 24, 221–222.

Stevenson, R. D. (1995). Feeding and nutrition in children with developmental disabilities. Pediatric Annals, 24, 255–260.

Strauss, D., Kastner, T., Ashwal, S., & White, J. (1997). Tubefeeding and mortality in children with severe disabilities and mental retardation. Pediatrics, 99, 358–362.

Walker, W. A., & Hendricks, K. M. (1985). Manual of pediatric nutrition. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.

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Postural Control and Movement

Alexander, R., Boehme, R., & Cupps, B. (1993). Normal development of functional motor skills. Tucson, AZ: Therapy Skill Builders.

Farber, S. D. (1982). Neurorehabilitation: A multisensory approach. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.

Harrymann, S. E., & Warren, L. R. (1992). Positioning and power mobility. In G. Church & S. Glennen (Eds.), The handbook of assistive technology (pp. 55–92). San Diego, CA: Singular.

Hulme, J., Poor, R., Schulein, M., & Prezzino, J. (1983). Perceived behavioral changes observed with adaptive seating devices and training programs for multihandicapped, developmentally disabled individuals. Physical Therapy, 63, 204–208.

Hulme, J., Shaver, J., Acher, S., Mullette, L., & Eggert, C. (1987). Effects of adaptive seating devices on the eating and drinking of children with multiple handicaps. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 41, 81–89.

Larnert, G., & Ekberg, O. (1995). Positioning improves the oral and pharyngeal swallowing function in children with cerebral palsy. Acta Paediatrica, 84, 689–692.

Marmet, C. (1991). Breastfeeding your baby: Positioning [videotape]. McHenry, IL: Medela.

Nwaobi, O., & Smith, P. D. (1986). Effect of adaptive seating on pulmonary function of children with cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 28, 351–354.

Orenstein, S. R. (1990). Prone positioning in infant gastroesophageal reflux: Is elevation of the head worth the trouble? Journal of Pediatrics, 117, 184–187.

Orenstein, S. R., & Whitington, P. F. (1983). Positioning for prevention of infant gastroesophageal reflux. Journal of Pediatrics, 103, 534–537.

Trefler, C. M. (1993). Seating and mobility for persons with physical disabilities. Tucson, AZ: Therapy Skill Builders.

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Behavioral/Developmental Feeding and Swallowing Problems

Arvedson, J. C. (1997). Behavioral issues and implications with pediatric feeding disorders. Seminars in Speech and Language, 18, 51–69.

Babbitt, R. L., Hoch, T. A., Coe, D.A., Cataldo, M. F., Kelly, K. J., Stackhouse, C., & Perman, J. A. (1994). Behavioral assessment and treatment of pediatric feeding disorders. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 15, 278–291.

Blackman, J. A., & Nelson, C. L. (1985). Reinstituting oral feedings in children fed by gastrostomy tube. Clinical Pediatrics, 24, 434–438.

Chatoor, I., Ganiban, J., Colin, V., & Plummer, N. (1998). Attachment and feeding problems: A reexamination of nonorganic failure to thrive and attachment insecurity. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 1217–1224.

Denny, A. (1997). Quiet music: An intervention for mealtime agitation. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 23, 16–23.

DiScippio, W., Kaslon, K., & Rubin, R. (1978). Traumatically acquired conditioned dysphagia. Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology, 87, 509–514.

Duniz, M., Scheer, P. J., Trojovsky, A., Kaschnitz, W., Kvas, E., & Macari, M. (1996). Changes in psychopathology of parents of NOFT (non-organic failure to thrive) infants during treatment. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 5(2), 93–100.

Gisel, E. G. (1994). Oral motor skills following sensorimotor intervention in the moderately eating-impaired child with cerebral palsy. Dysphagia, 9, 180–192.

Guo, S. S., Whoolihan, K., Roche, A. F., Chumlea, W. C., & Casey, P. H. (1996). Weight for length reference data for preterm, low birth weight infants. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 150, 964–970.

Hack, M., Weissman, B., & Borawski-Clark, E. (1996). Catch-up growth during childhood among very low-birth-weight children. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 150, 1122–1129.

Hagopian, L. P, Farrell, D. A., & Amari, A. (1996). Treating total liquids refusal with backward chaining and fading. Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, 29, 573–575.

Handen, B. L., Mandell, F., & Russo, D. C. (1986). Feeding induction in children who refuse to eat. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 140, 52–54.

Kedesdy, J. H., & Budd, K. S. (1998). Childhood feeding disorders: Behavioral assessment and intervention. Baltimore: Brookes.

Kerwin, M. E. (1999). Empirically supported treatments in pediatric psychology: Severe feeding problems. Journal Pediatric Psychology, 24, 193–214.

Kerwin, M. E., Ahearn, W. H., Eicher, P. S., & Burd, D. M. (1995). The costs of eating: A behavioral economic analysis of food refusal. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28, 245–260.

Klein, M. D., & Morris, S. E. (1999). Mealtime participation guide. San Antonio, TX: Therapy Skill Builders.

Lefton-Greif, M. A., & Arvedson, J. C. (1997). Pediatric feeding/swallowing teams. Seminars in Speech and Language, 18, 5–11.

Illingsworth, R. S., & Lister, J. (1964). The critical or sensitive period with special reference to feeding problems in infants and children. Journal of Pediatrics, 65, 839–848.

Luiselli, J. K. (1994). Oral feeding treatment of children with chronic food refusal and multiple developmental disabilities. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 98, 646–655.

Pliner, P., & Loewen, E. R. (1997). Temperament and food neophobia in children and their mothers. Appetite, 28, 239–254.

Reilly, S. M., Skuse, D. H., Wolke, D., & Stevenson, J. (1999). Oral-motor dysfunction in children who fail to thrive: Organic or non-organic. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 41, 115–122.

Riordan, M. M., Iwata, B. A., Finney, J. W., Wohl, M. K., & Stanley, A. E. (1984). Behavioral assessment and treatment of chronic food refusal in handicapped children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 17, 327–341.

Russell, G. F., Treasure, J., & Eisler, I. (1998). Mothers with anorexia nervosa who underfeed their children: Their recognition and management. Psychological Medicine, 28, 93–108.

Toomey, K. A. (2000, November). Steps to eating. Colorado Feeding Consortium . Unpublished handout from A. Hass & N. Creskoff's The S.O.S. approach: Sequential oral sensory approach to feeding, presented at the annual convention of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, Washington, DC.

Wright, C., & Birks, E. (2000). Risk factors for failure to thrive: A population-based survey. Child Care Health Development, 26, 5–16.

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Neurodevelopmental and Developmental Evaluation & Treatment

Als, H. (1998). Developmentally supportive care in the neonatal intensive care unit. Zero to Three, 15(6), 2–10.

Als, H., & Gilkerson, L. (1995). Developmental care in the newborn intensive care unit. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 10, 138–142.

Barnard, K. E. (1978). Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale. Seattle: University of Washington.

Bayley, N. (1993). Bayley Scales of Infant Development (2nd ed.). New York: The Psychological Corporation.

Bly, L. (1999). Baby treatment based on NDT principles. San Antonio, TX: Therapy Skill Builders.

Bly, L., & Whiteside, A. (1997). Facilitation techniques based on NDT principles. San Antonio, TX: Therapy Skill Builders.

Brazelton, T. B. (1973). Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale. Philadelphia: Lippincott.

Capute, A. J., & Accardo, P. J. (1996). The infant neurodevelopmental assessment: A clinical interpretive manual for CAT-CLAMS in the first two years of life, Part 2. Current Problems in Pediatrics, 26, 299–306.

Capute, A. J., Palmer, F. B., Shapiro, B. K., Wachtel, R. C., Schmidt, S., & Ross, A. (1986). A clinical linguistic and auditory milestone scale: Prediction of cognition in infancy. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 28, 762–771.

Capute, A. J., & Shapiro, B. K. (1985). The motor quotient: A method for the early detection of motor delay. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 139, 940–942.

Davis, B. E., Moon, R. Y., Sachs, H. C., & Ottolini, M. C. (1998). Effects of sleep position on infant motor development. Pediatrics, 102, 1135–1140.

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Cultural Issues

Bentley, M., Gavin, L., Black, M. M., & Teti, L. (1999). Infant feeding practices of low-income, African-American, adolescent mothers: An ecological, multigenerational perspective. Social Science Medicine, 49, 1085–1100.

Black, M. M., Cureton, P., & Berenson-Howard, J. (1999). Behavior problems in feeding: Individual, family, and cultural influences. In D. A. Kessler & P. Dawson (Eds.), Pediatric undernutrition and failure-to-thrive: A transdisciplinary approach (pp. 151–172). Baltimore: Brookes.

Black, M. M., & Teti, L. O. (1997). A culturally sensitive strategy to promote communication and healthy nutrition among adolescent mothers and their infants. Pediatrics, 99, 432–437.

Brodwick, M., Baranowski, T., & Rassin, D. K. (1989). Patterns of infant feeding in a tri-ethnic population. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 89, 1129–1132.

Bronner, Y., Gross, S., & Caulfield, L. (1999). Infant feeding practices among African-American WIC participants. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 99, 457–461.

Carruth, B. R., Skinner, J., Houck, K., Moran, J., Coletta, F., & Ott, D. (1998). The phenomenon of “picky eater”: A behavioral marker in eating patterns of toddlers. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 17, 180–186.

Daly, A., McDonald, A., & Booth, I. W. (1998). Diet and disadvantage: Observations on infant feeding from an inner city. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 11, 381–389.

Earland, J. (1997). Maternal employment: Does it influence feeding practices during infancy? Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 10, 305–311.

Hannon, P.R., Willis, S. K., Bishop-Townsend, V., Martinez, I. M., & Scrimshaw, S. C. (2000). African-American and Latina adolescent mothers' infant feeding decisions and breastfeeding practices: A qualitative study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 26, 399–407.

Kannan, S., Carruth, B. R., & Skinner, J. (1999). Cultural influences on infant feeding beliefs of mothers. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 99, 88–90.

Kannan, S., Carruth, B. R., & Skinner, J. (1999). Infant feeding practices of Anglo American and Asian Indian American mothers. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 18, 279–286.

Mennella, J. A. (1996). The flavor world of infants: A cross-cultural perspective. Pediatric Basics, 7, 2–8.

Mennella, J. A., & Beauchamp, G. K. (1991). Maternal diet alters the sensory qualities of human milk and the nursling's behavior. Pediatrics, 88, 737–744.

Nevling, W., Carruth, B. R., & Skinner, J. D. (1997). How do socioeconomic status and age influence infant food patterns. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 97, 418–420.

Pearson, J. L., Hunter, A. G., Cook, J. M., Ialongo, N. S., & Kellam, S. G. (1997). Grandmother involvement in child care giving in an urban community. Gerontologist, 37, 650–657.

Skinner, J. D., Carruth, B. R., & Moran, J. (1998). Toddler's food preferences: Concordance with family members' preferences. Journal of Nutrition Education, 30, 17–22.

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Suggested Student Learning Outcomes/Benchmarks (Related to KASA Guidelines)

  1. The student will identify the anatomy, physiology, and neural controls involved in normal swallowing for children and adults.

  2. The student will describe primary physiological systems associated with swallowing, such as respiratory, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and sensory systems.

  3. The student will use knowledge of normal swallowing processes to determine presence or absence of dysphagia in children and adults.

  4. The student will identify primary etiologies and associated dysphagia characteristics in children and adults.

  5. The student will identify the symptoms and underlying etiologies and pathophysiology of dysphagia in children and adults.

  6. The student will identify symptoms, underlying etiology, and pathophysiology of dysphagia in special populations (i.e., tracheostomized and ventilator dependent patients, patients with multiple diagnosis/comorbidities, and patients with postsurgical anatomical variations, systemic medical conditions, etc.).

  7. The student will identify research-supported characteristics of normal and disordered swallowing across the life span.

  8. The student will identify evidence-based methods for instrumental and noninstrumental assessment of dysphagia.

  9. The student will demonstrate knowledge and skills needed to implement research-supported strategies for noninstrumental evaluation of swallowing.

  10. The student will demonstrate knowledge and skills needed to implement research supported strategies for instrumental evaluation of swallowing.

  11. The student will demonstrate the ability to devise research-supported therapy/management plans for the treatment of specific swallowing impairments, taking into account motivation level, quality of life, cultural, ethical, and moral issues.

  12. The student will describe basic radiation safety protocols for speech-language pathologists and patients during radiographic swallow evaluation.

  13. The student will identify options for dysphagia teaming models that are appropriate for a variety of practice settings and environments.

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Index terms: curriculum, graduate programs, swallowing

Reference this material as: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2007). Graduate curriculum on swallowing and swallowing disorders (adult and pediatric dysphagia) [Technical report]. Available from www.asha.org/policy.

© Copyright 2007 American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. All rights reserved.

Disclaimer: The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association disclaims any liability to any party for the accuracy, completeness, or availability of these documents, or for any damages arising out of the use of the documents and any information they contain.

doi:10.1044/policy.TR2007-00280

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