1. Cultural diversity is shaped by many different factors including:
(circle all that apply)
- sexual orientation
- religious beliefs
- socioeconomic levels
- age-based peer groups
- educational background
All of them apply.
2. Culturally and linguistically diverse clients should be seen only by those professionals who are of similar cultural/linguistic background.
False. Some studies have shown that racial/ethnic matches between the client and clinician may influence clinical interactions. Appropriate training can result in effective service delivery where there is a mismatch.
3. Bilingual speech-language pathologists and audiologists earn a different certificate of clinical competence from ASHA than monolingual audiologists and speech-language pathologists.
False. There is no differentiation in certification made by ASHA for monolingual and bilingual professionals. Members registered with ASHA as bilingual service providers are self-identified based on ASHA's definition of a bilingual SLP and audiologist.
4. A bilingual clinician needs to be fluent in the language spoken by the client, but does not need to understand normal language acquisition in the language spoken.
False. ASHA defines a bilingual professional as one who can describe the process of normal language acquisition for both monolingual and bilingual individuals and how those processes are manifested in oral (or manually coded) and written language.
5. If you are working with same-sex parents, it is only important to get the medical information about the biological parents.
False. It is important to include the health history of all primary caregivers.
6. There are universal gestures to indicate agreement, such as nodding the head to indicate "yes."
False. For example, in many Asian communities, bowing, smiling, and nodding do not necessarily indicate agreement or understanding. In many Arab communities, responding "yes" to a request may be an expression of good will rather than an indication that the request will be carried out. In many Hispanic communities, a client may agree only out of politeness, but will not follow the recommendations. These statements are intended to provide some examples of variances; however, they are not absolutes for the communities.
7. In Hispanic communities, it would be appropriate to initiate an assessment sharing meeting with a personal conversation rather than to immediately provide the results.
True. Initiation of business talk may be considered rude.
8. Monolingual language learners and bilingual language learners should have the same emerging language milestones.
True. Studies indicate that both monolingual language learners and bilingual language learners will babble, use their first words, and develop two-word utterances within the same age range.
9. The use of African American English is influenced by many different variables including (circle all that apply)
- geographic location
3. geographic location
10. Speech-language and hearing difficulties are more prevalent among Native Americans.
True. Speech, language, and hearing difficulties are five times more likely to occur in Native Americans.
11. It is possible that 1%–2% of your clients will be gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgendered.
False. Approximately 5%–10% of your caseload may be lesbian, gay, or bisexual and 1–10% may be transgendered. Be aware that even children may know their sexual orientation or gender identification.
12. If a family member or friend speaks English as well as the client's native language, and is willing to act as an interpreter, this is the best possible solution.
False. There are experienced interpreters/translators who have been specially trained. It is best to work with someone experienced in assessments and intervention particular to your field.
13. When conducting a language assessment on a client with limited ability to speak English, which one of the following is LEAST useful?
- Research on the client's culture(s), speech community, or communication environment
- An interview on how the client's language development compares to peers in his/her speech community or communication environment
- An interview with a family member, or other person who knew the client previously, to describe and compare the client's language skills before the insult or injury that may have led to an acquired language disorder
- Information on the family history of speech/language problems or academic difficulties
- Competent use of a linguistic/sociolinguistic cultural informant/broker to gain insight into the impact of culture on the client's communication skills
- Use of language data received from the interpreter/translator
- Standard scores from a translated battery of assessments
7. Standard scores from a translated battery of assessments. If the assessment was translated only, then it was standardized on a population sample with which your client does not identify. The scores will not be valid.
14. Cultural and linguistic biases may occur in testing tools and have an impact on an appropriate differential diagnosis between a language disorder and a language difference. Cultural biases do NOT include the following:
2. Differences in features of language. This is a linguistic bias.
- question types
- differences in features of language
- specific response tasks
- test format
15. An audiologist must be aware of the influences of different races and ethnicities when completing an audiologic evaluation.
True. There is variability in the etiology and prevalence of some hearing disorders based on racial/ethnic differences.
16. Fitting considerations for personal assistive devices may vary across races and ethnicities.
True. For example, the audiologist needs to be aware of the availability of ear molds and hearing aids with greater cosmetic appeal for varying skin tones
17. When working with an interpreter, the interpreter makes diagnoses.
False. The qualified examiner always makes diagnoses.
18. Variations in dialects of the Spanish language are reflected in (circle all that apply)
- structure of language
19. In many Native American communities, the best way to learn is:
- through rote memorization
- by listening and observing
- using nature
3. by listening and observing