American Speech-Language-Hearing Association

Epidemiology Across Cultures: American Indian and Alaska Native Populations

Demographics | Health Statistics | Educational Statistics | Resources

Demographics

The term "American Indian and Alaska Native" refers to people having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South American (including Central America), and who maintain tribal affiliation or community attachment. The 2006–2008 American Community Survey estimates that the United States population was 301.2 million. Of the total, 2.4 million, or 0.8 percent, reported American Indian and Alaska Native. [1]

Health Statistics

Incidence and Prevalence of Diseases

AIDS/HIV, number of 38,096 newly reported cases in 2005 [2]

195

Coronary Heart Disease [3]

6.6%

Cleft lip/palate [4]

3.6 per 1,000 births

Diabetes Mellitus [3]

15%

Stroke [3]

3.9%

Risk Factors

Hypertension [3]

25.3%

Obesity (BMI 30+) [3]

42.1%

Educational Statistics

According to the National Center for Educational Statistics, approximately 1.2% of students enrolled in elementary and secondary schools in the Fall of 2006 were American Indian/Alaska Native. [5]

Special Education Identification (Fall 2004) [6]

Percentage of students ages 6 through 21 receiving special education services for given disability category 

 

% of American Indian and Alaska Natives identified

Specific Learning Disabilities

7.50

Speech or Language Impairment

2.29

Mental Retardation

1.04

Emotional Disturbance

1.13

Multiple Disabilities

0.28

Hearing Impairment

0.14

Orthopedic Impairment

0.10

Other Health Impairment

0.91

Visual Impairment

0.05

Autism

0.18

Deaf-Blindness

0.00

Traumatic Brain Injury

0.05

Resources

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[1] U.S. Census Bureau. (2008) 2006–2008 American community survey. Retrieved January 12, 2010 from http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DTTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&-ds_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G00_&-mt_name=ACS_2008_3YR_G2000_B02001

[2] Center for Disease Control and Population. (2008) "Fact Sheet: HIV/AIDS among American Indians and Alaska Natives." Retrieved January 11, 2010 from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/factsheets/aian.htm

[3] American Heart Association. (2009). Heart disease and stroke statistics—2010 update. Dallas: American Heart Association.

[4] Biavati, M. (2009). Cleft Palate. Retrieved January 5, 2010 from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/878062-overview.

[5] Digest of Education Statistics. (2008). "Percentage distribution of enrollment in public elementary and secondary school, by race/ethnicity and state: Fall 1996 and Fall 2006." Retrieved January 5, 2010 from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d08/tables/dt08_041.asp.

[6] U.S Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, Office of Special Education Programs. (2009). 28th Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Act, 2006, vol. 1, Washington DC.

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