American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2016a). Code of ethics [Ethics]. Available from www.asha.org/policy/.
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2016b). Scope of practice in speech-language pathology [Scope of Practice]. Available from www.asha.org/policy/.
Bislick, L. P., McNeil, M., Spencer, K. A., Yorkston, K. M., & Kendall, D. L. (2017). The nature of error consistency in individuals with acquired apraxia of speech and aphasia. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 26, 611–630.
Bislick, L. P., Weir, P. C., Spencer, K. A., Kendall, D. L., & Yorkston, K. M. (2012). Do principles of motor learning enhance retention and transfer of speech skills? A systematic review. Aphasiology, 26, 709–728.
Bogousslavsky, J., Melle, G. V., & Regli, F. (1988). The Lausanne Stroke Registry: Analysis of 1,000 consecutive patients with first stroke. Stroke, 19, 1083–1092.
Chen, A., & Garrett, C. G. (2005). Otolaryngologic presentations of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, 132, 500–504.
Clark, H. M., & Solomon, N. P. (2012). Muscle tone and the speech-language pathologist: Definitions, neurophysiology, assessment, and interventions. Perspectives on Swallowing and Swallowing Disorders (Dysphagia), 21, 9–14.
da Costa Franceschini, A., & Mourão, L. F. (2015). Dysarthria and dysphagia in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with spinal onset: A study of quality of life related to swallowing. NeuroRehabilitation, 36, 127–134.
Darley, F. L., Aronson, A. E., & Brown, J. R. (1969a). Clusters of deviant speech dimensions in the dysarthrias. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 12, 462–496.
Darley, F. L., Aronson, A. E., & Brown, J. R. (1969b). Differential diagnostic patterns of dysarthria. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 12, 246–269.
Darley, F. L., Aronson, A. E., & Brown, J. R. (1975). Motor speech disorders. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.
Darley, F. L., Brown, J. R., & Goldstein, N. P. (1972). Dysarthria in multiple sclerosis. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 15, 229–245.
De Swart, B. J., Willemse, S. C., Maassen, B. A. M., & Horstink, M. W. I. M. (2003). Improvement of voicing in patients with Parkinson's disease by speech therapy. Neurology, 60, 498–500.
Duffy, J. R. (2013). Motor speech disorders: Substrates, differential diagnosis, and management. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.
Flowers, H. L., Silver, F. L., Fang, J., Rochon, E., & Martino, R. (2013). The incidence, co-occurrence, and predictors of dysphagia, dysarthria, and aphasia after first-ever acute ischemic stroke. Journal of Communication Disorders, 46, 238–248.
Fonville, S., van der Worp, H. B., Maat, P., Aldenhoven, M., Algra, A., & van Gijn, J. (2008). Accuracy and inter-observer variation in the classification of dysarthria from speech recordings. Journal of Neurology, 255, 1545–1548.
Hartelius, L., Runmarker, B., & Andersen, O. (2000). Prevalence and characteristics of dysarthria in multiple-sclerosis incidence cohort: Relation to neurological data. Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica, 52, 160–177.
Hartelius, L., & Svensson, P. (1994). Speech and swallowing symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis: A survey. Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica, 46, 9–17.
Ho, A., Iansek, R., Marigliani, C., & Bradshaw, J. L. (1998). Speech impairment in a large sample of people with Parkinson's disease. Behavioral Neurology, 11, 131–137.
Jani, M., & Gore, G. (2014). Occurrence of communication and swallowing problems in neurological disorders: Analysis of forty patients. NeuroRehabilitation, 35, 719–727.
Kent, R. D., Kent, J. F., & Rosenbek, J. C. (1987). Maximum performance tests of speech production. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 52, 367–387.
Kleim, J. A., & Jones, T. A. (2008). Principles of experience-dependent neural plasticity: Implications for rehabilitation after brain damage. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 51(Supp.), S225–S239.
Kuehn, D. P. (1997). The development of a new technique for treating hypernasality. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 6, 5–8.
Kumral, E., Özkaya, B., Sagduyu, A., Şirin, H., Vardarli, E., & Pehlivan, M. (1988). The Ege Stroke Registry: A hospital-based study in the Aegean region, Izmir, Turkey. Cerebrovascular Disorders, 39, 315–323.
Lawrence, E. S., Coshall, C., Dundas, R., Stewart, J., Rudd, A. G., Howard, R., & Wolfe, C. D. A. (2001). Estimates of the prevalence of acute stroke impairments and disability in a multiethnic population. Stroke, 32, 1279–1284.
Logemann, J. A., Fisher, H. B., Boshes, B., & Blonsky, E. R. (1978). Frequency and co-occurrence of vocal tract dysfunctions in the speech of a large sample of Parkinson patients. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 43, 47–57.
Lowit, A., & Kent, R. D. (2010). Assessment of motor speech disorders. San Diego, CA: Plural.
Maas, E., Robin, D. A., Austermann Hula, S. N., Freedman, S. E., Wulf, G., Ballard, K. J., & Schmidt, R. A. (2008). Principles of motor learning in treatment of motor speech disorders. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 17, 277–298.
Mitchell, C., Bowen, A., Tyson, S., Butterfint, Z., & Conroy, P. (2017). Interventions for dysarthria due to stroke and other adult-acquired, non-progressive brain injury. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1.
Müller, J., Wenning, G. K., Verny, M., McKee, A., Chaudhuri, K. R., Jellinger, . . . Litvan, I. (2001). Progression of dysarthria and dysphagia in postmortem-confirmed Parkinsonian disorders. Archives of Neurology, 58, 259–264.
Neel, A. T. (2009). Effects of loud and amplified speech on sentence and word intelligibility in Parkinson disease. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 52, 1021–1033.
Patel, R. (2002). Prosodic control in severe dysarthria: Preserved ability to mark the question-statement contrast. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 45, 858–870.
Ramig, L. O., Bonitati, C., Lemke, J., & Horii, Y. (1994). Voice treatment for patients with Parkinson disease: Development of an approach and preliminary efficacy data. Journal of Medical Speech-Language Pathology, 2, 191–209.
Rosenbek, J. C., & LaPointe, L. L. (1985). The dysarthrias: Description, diagnosis, and treatment. In D. F. Johns (Ed.), Clinical Management of neurogenic communication disorders (pp. 97–152). Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Co.
Safaz, I., Alaca, R., Yasar, E., Tok, F., & Yilmaz, B. (2008). Medical complications, physical function and communication skills in patients with traumatic brain injury: A single centre 5-year experience. Brain Injury, 22, 733–739.
Safaz, I., Kesikburun, S., Adigüzel, E., & Yilmaz, B. (2016). Determinants of disease-specific health-related quality of life in Turkish stroke survivors. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 39, 130–133.
Sarno, M. T. (1980). The nature of verbal impairment after closed head injury. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 168, 685–692.
Sarno, M. T., Buonaguro, A., & Levita, E. (1986). Characteristics of verbal impairment in closed head injured patients. Archive of Physical Medical Rehabilitation, 67, 400–405.
Teasell, R., Foley, N., Doherty, T., & Finestone, H. (2002). Clinical characteristics of patients with brainstem strokes admitted to a rehabilitation unit. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 83, 1013–1016.
Traynor, B. J., Codd, M. B., Corr, B., Forde, C., Frost, E., & Hardiman, O. M. (2000). Clinical features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis according to the El Escorial and Airlie House Diagnostic Criteria: A population-based study. Archives of Neurology, 57, 1171–1176.
Van der Graaff, M., Kuiper, T., Zwinderman, A., Van de Warrenburg, B., Poels, P., Offeringa, A., . . . De Visser, M. (2009). Clinical identification of dysarthria types among neurologists, residents in neurology and speech therapists. European Neurology, 61, 295–300.
Vidović, M., Sinanović, O., Sabaskić, L., Haticić, A., & Brkić, E. (2011). Incidence and types of speech disorders in stroke patients. Acta Clinica Croatica, 50, 491–494.
World Health Organization. (2001). International classification of functioning, disability, and health. Geneva, Switzerland: Author.
Yorkston, K. M., Beukelman, D. R., Strand, E., & Hakel, M. (2010). Management of motor speech disorders in children and adults. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.
Yorkston, K. M., Honsinger, M. J., Mitsuda, P. M., & Hammen, V. (1989). The relationship between speech and swallowing disorders in head-injured patients. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 4, 1–16.
Zyski, B. J., & Weisiger, B. E. (1987). Identification of dysarthria types based on perceptual analysis. Journal of Communication Disorders, 20, 367–378.