American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (n.d.). Audiology and speech-language pathology associations outside of the United States. Available from

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2016). Code of ethics [Ethics]. Available from

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.(n.d.). HIPAA: Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Rule. Available from

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (n.d.). Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. Available from

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.(n.d.). HIPAA Security Rule: Frequently asked questions. Available from

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (n.d.). HIPAA security technical safeguards. Available from

American Telemedicine Association. (2010). A blueprint for telerehabilitation guidelines.

Brannon, J., Cohn, E. R., & Cason, J. (2012). Making the case for uniformity in professional state licensure requirements. International Journal of Telerehabilitation, 4(1), 41-46.

Brennan, D. M., Georgeadis, A. C., Baron, C. R., & Barker, L. M. (2004). The effect of videoconference-based telerehab on story retelling performance by brain injured subjects and its implication for remote speech-language therapy. Telemedicine Journal and e-Health, 10(2), 147-154.

Burgess, L., Holtel, M., Syms, M., Birkmire-Peters, D., Peters, L., & Mashima, P. (1999). Overview of telemedicine applications for otolaryngology. Laryngoscope, 109(9), 1433-1437.

Campos, P. D., & Ferrari, D. V. J. (2012). Teleaudiology: Evaluation of teleconsultation efficacy for hearing aid fitting. Journal da Sociedade Brasileira de Fonoaudiologia, 24(4), 301-308.

Carey, B., O'Brian, S., Onslow, M., Packman, A., & Menzies, R. (2012). Webcam delivery of the Camperdown Program for adolescents who stutter: A phase I trial. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools. 43, 370-380.

Cason, J., & Brannon, J. A. (2011). Telehealth regulatory and legal considerations: Frequently asked questions. International Journal of Telerehabilitation, 3(2), 15-18.

Choi, J. M., Lee, H. B., Park, C. S., Oh, S. H., & Park, K. S. (2007). PC-based tele-audiometry. Telemedicine Journal and e-Health, 13(5), 501-508.

Cohn, E. R.(2012). Tele-ethics in telepractice for communication disorders. Perspectives on Telepractice, 2(1), 3-15.

Cohn, E. R., Brannon, J., & Cason, J. (2011). Resolving barriers to licensure portability for telerehabilitation professionals. International Journal of Telerehabilitation, 3(2), 31-33.

Cohn, E., R., & Watzlaf, V. J. M. (2011). Privacy and Internet-based telepractice. Perspectives on Telepractice. 1(1), 26-37.

Crutchley, S., Dudley, W., & Campbell, M. (2010). Articulation assessment through videoconferencing: A pilot study. Communications of Global Information Technology, 2, 12-23.

Denton, D. R. (2003). Ethical and legal issues related to telepractice. Seminars in Speech and Language, 24(4), 331-322.

Eikelboom, R., Atlas, M., Mbao, M., & Gallop, M. (2002). Tele-otology: planning, design, development and implementation. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 8(Suppl. 3), 14-17.

Grogan-Johnson, S., Alvares, R., Rowan, L., & Creaghead, N. (2010). A pilot study comparing the effectiveness of speech language therapy provided by telemedicine with conventional on-site therapy. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 16, 134-139.

Grogan-Johnson, S., Gabel, R., Taylor, J., Rowan, L., Alvarex, R., & Schenker, J. (2011). A pilot exploration of speech sound disorder intervention delivered by telehealth to school-age children. International Journal of Telerehabilitation,3(1), 31-42.

Halpern, A. E., Ramig, L. O., Matos, C. E. C., Petska-Cable, J. A., Spielman, J. L., Pogoda, J. M., Gilley, P. M., Sapir, S., Bennett, J. K., & McFarland, D. H. (2012).Innovative technology for the assisted delivery of intensive voice treatment (LSVT®LOUD) for Parkinson disease. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 21, 354-367.

Heneghan, C., Sclafani, A., Stern, J., & Ginsburg, J. (1999). Telemedicine applications in otolaryngology. IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society, 18(4), 53-62.

Hill, A. J., Theodoros, D. G, Russell, T. G., Cahill, L. M., Ward, E. C., & Clark, K. M. (2006). An Internet-based telerehabilitation system for the assessment of motor speech disorders: A pilot study. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 15, 45-56.

Hofstetter, P. J., Kokesh, J., A., Ferguson, A. S., & Hood, L. J. (2010). The impact of telehealth on wait time for ENT specialty care. Telemedicine and e-Health, 16(5), 551-556.

Jarvis-Selinger, S., Chan, E., Payne, R., Plohman, K., & Ho, K. (2008). Clinical telehealth across the disciplines: Lessons learned. Telemedicine and e-Health, 14, 720-725.

Kokesh, J., Ferguson, A. S., Patricoski, C., & LeMaster, B. (2009). Traveling an audiologist to provide otolaryngology care using store and forward telemedicine. Telemedicine and e-Health, 15, 758-763.

Krumm, M., Huffman, T., Dick, K., & Klich, R. (2007). Providing infant hearing screening using OAEs and AABR using telehealth technology. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 14(2), 102-104.

Krumm, M., Ribera, J., & Klich, R. (2007). Providing basic hearing tests using remote computing technology. Journal of telemedicine and telecare, 13(8), 406-410.

Krumm, M., Ribera, J., & Schmiedge, J. (2005). Using a telehealth medium for objective hearing testing: Implications for supporting rural universal newborn hearing screening programs. Seminars in Hearing, 26, 3-12.

Lancaster, P., Krumm, M., Ribera, J., & Klich, R. (2008). Remote hearing screenings via telepractice in rural elementary school. American Journal of Audiology, 17(2),114-122.

Lewis, C., Packman, A., Onslow, M., Simpson, J., & Jones, M. (2008). A Phase II trial of telehealth delivery of the Lidcombe Program of Early Stuttering Intervention. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 17, 139-149.

Malandraki , G. A., McCullough, G.,He, X., McWeeny, E., & Perlman, A. L. (2011). Teledynamic evaluation of oropharyngeal swallowing. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 54, 497-1505.

Mashima, P. A., Birkmire-Peters, D. P., Syms, M. J., Holtel, M. R., Burgess, L., & Peters, L. J. (2003). Telehealth: Voice therapy using telecommunications technology. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 12(4), 432.

McCullough, A. (2001). Viability and effectiveness of teletherapy for pre-school children with special needs. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 36(Suppl. 1), 321-326.

Parmanto, B., Pulantara, W., Schutte, J., Saptono, A., & McCue, M. (2013). An iintegrated telehealth system for remote administration of an adult autism assessment. Telemedicine and e-Health, 19(2), 88-94.

Perlman, A. L., & Witthawaskul, W. (2002). Real-time remote telefluoroscopic assessment of patients with dysphagia. Dysphagia, 17(2), 162-167.

Polovoy, C. (2009). Aural rehabilitation telepractice: international project links NY student clinicians, Bolivian children. ASHA Leader, 14(8), 20-21.

Ribera, J. (2005). Interjudge reliability and validation of telehealth applications of the Hearing in Noise Test. Seminars in Hearing, 26, 13-18.

Rose, D., Furner, S., Hall, A., Montgomery, K., Datsavras, E., & Clarke, P. (2000). Videoconferencing for speech and language therapy in schools. BT Technology Journal, 18(1), 101-104.

Scheideman-Miller, C., Clark, P., Smeltzer, S., Cloud, A., Carpenter, J., Hodge, B., & Prouty, D. (2002). Two year results of a pilot study delivering speech therapy to students in a rural Oklahoma school via telemedicine. Proceedings of the 35th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (pp. 1-9). Retrieved July 5, 2011, from

Servicemembers' Telemedicine and E-Health Portability Act. (2011). Available from

Sullivan, R. (1997). Video-otoscopy in audiologic practice. Journal of American Academy of Audiology, 8, 447-467.

Theodoros, D. G., Constantinescu, G., Russell, T. G., Ward, E. C., Wilson, S. J., & Wootton, R. (2006). Treating the speech disorder in Parkinson's disease online. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 12(Suppl. 3), 88-91.

Tindall, L. R., Huebner, R. A., Stemple, J. C., & Kleinert, H. L. (2008). Videophone-delivered voice therapy: a comparative analysis of outcomes to traditional delivery for adults with Parkinson's disease. Telemedicine and e-Health, 14(10), 1070-1077.

Towey, M. (2012). Speech telepractice: Installing a speech therapy upgrade for the 21st Century. International Journal of Telerehabilitation, 4 (2). doi:10.5195/ijt.2012.6112. Available from

Towey, M. (2012). Speech Therapy Telepractice for Vocal Cord Dysfunction (VCD): MaineCare (Medicaid) Cost Savings. International Journal of Telerehabilitation, 4 (1), 34-36. doi:10.5195/ijt.2012.6095.

U.S. Department of Education. (n.d.). Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act. Available from

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.). Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act. Available from

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.). Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. Available from

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. (2012). Telehealth services: Rural health fact sheet series. Available from

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Information Technology and Quality Improvement. (n.d.). What is telehealth? Available from

Waite, M., Cahill, L., Theodoros, D., Busuttin, S., & Russell, T. (2006). A pilot study of online assessment of childhood speech disorders. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 12(Suppl. 3), S3:92-94.

Waite, M., Theodoros, D., Russell, T., & Cahill, L. (2010). Internet-based telehealth assessment of language using the CELF-4. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 41, 445-448.

Wasowski, A., Skarzynski, H., Lorens, A., Obycka, A., Walkowiak, A., Skarzynski, P., et al. (2012). The telefitting method used in the national network of teleaudiology: assessment of quality and cost effectiveness. Journal of Hearing Science, 2(2), 81-85.

Yates, J. T., & Campbell, K. H. (2005). Audiovestibular education and services via telemedicine technologies. Seminars in Hearing, 26, 35-42.

Content Disclaimer: The Practice Portal, ASHA policy documents, and guidelines contain information for use in all settings; however, members must consider all applicable local, state and federal requirements when applying the information in their specific work setting.