American Speech-Language-Hearing Association

Performance Assessment of Contributions and Effectiveness (PACE)

Glossary of Terms to Know About PACE

Communication Disorder
A communication disorder is a developmental or acquired impairment in the ability to receive, send, process, and comprehend concepts or verbal, nonverbal, and graphic symbol systems. A communication disorder may be evident in the processes of hearing, language, and/or speech and may range in severity from mild to profound. Individuals may demonstrate one or any combination of communication disorders as a primary disability or secondary to other disabilities.
Early Intervening Services
A provision within the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA 2004, §300.226) allowing a local education agency (LEA) to use not more than 15% of the current existing Part B funds it receives to develop and implement coordinated, Early Intervening Services (EIS) for children who have not been identified as eligible under the Act, but who need additional academic and behavioral support to succeed in a general education environment. Response to Intervention (RTI) is one type of early intervening service. These services are for students in kindergarten through Grade 12, with particular emphasis placed on providing these services for students in kindergarten through Grade 3. These activities are part of professional development for teachers and other school staff as well as educational and behavioral evaluations, services, and supports, including scientifically-based literacy instruction. LEAs will be allowed to supplement these activities with funds received through the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA, also known as No Child Left Behind Act [NCLB]). A separate funding stream was not provided for these activities.
Related Service Provider
Speech‐language pathologists are defined as related service providers in the No Child Left Behind Act (Sec. 9101, para. 36), a reauthorized version of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, and as pupil services personnel under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 2004 2004 (IDEA 2004, § 300.226) (34 C.F.R. Sec. 602 [26][A]). They are also referred to as specialized instructional support personnel (SISP) and in some states as supplemental service providers. Pupil/related services personnel provide a variety of prevention, intervention, transition, and follow-up services in schools that promote and support effective classroom learning. They also collaborate and consult with teachers, families, and school staff to provide students with individual instruction that is responsive to students' diverse learning and developmental needs and challenges.
Response to Intervention (RTI)
A multi‐tier approach to providing services and interventions to struggling learners at increasing levels of intensity. It involves universal screening, high‐quality instruction, interventions matched to student need, frequent progress monitoring, and the use of child response data to make educational decisions. RTI is a type of Early Intervening Service (EIS).
Standardized Test
A standardized test is given according to specific rules that ensure that the test results will be comparable across students.
Value‐Added Assessment
Value-added assessment (VAA) requires the use of complex, statistical methods to estimate the contributions of students, teachers, classroom environments, and school environments to student achievement and other student outcomes. Non-school factors that affect academic growth are controlled. Students' test score gains from previous grades are used to predict the amount of growth those students are likely to make in a given year. Classroom scores that equal or exceed projected values suggest that instruction was highly effective. Scores that are mostly below projections suggest that the instruction was ineffective. Teachers' contributions to student learning are determined by calculating the average of all of the students' growth scores. In regard to teacher evaluations, a teacher's performance is compared with that of other teachers within a district (or other unit) in terms of contribution to student growth; the teacher is ranked and receives a value‐added "score." VAA models vary in the factors included (e.g., students' gender, race, socioeconomic background, teacher experience) and the weight that test scores are given to determine student growth and teacher performance.

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